Toxıcologıc Evaluatıon of Sılver Nanopartıcles
Saz, Chareh Mohammad
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Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are widely applied in several products due to their unique physico-chemical properties as well as bactericidal effects. The extensive application of Ag-NPs has raised concerns about their potential toxicity. The evaluation of toxicity of Ag-NPs in some previous studies has revealed the adverse effects of these NPs on living organisms. However, very little is known about the potential toxicity of Ag-NPs on dams and offspring during the prenatal exposure. In the present study, reproductive/ developmental toxicity of orally administered Ag-NPs (0.2, 2 and 20 mg/kg/day) and AgNO3 (20 mg/kg/day) was investigated in rats from gestation day 7 to 20. At 2 days after parturition, dams and pups were sacrificed and Ag level in maternal as well as pups organs was measured by Atomic absorption spectrometry. For safety evaluation of administered Ag-NPs, body and organ weights; ALT, AST and IL-6 levels; oxidative stress parameters; comet assay and histopathological examination were performed. As a result, no treatment related effects were found for the reproductive parameters including pregnancy length, maternal weight gain, and number of implants, fetal weight and litter size up to 20 mg/kg daily dose. Ag content of all investigated tissues was found higher in Ag-NPs and AgNO3 treated groups than control in both dams and pups, indicating the possible transfer of Ag from pregnant rats to the fetus. The data suggest that Ag in nanoparticulate and ionic forms can affect oxidative stress in both dams and related offspring. However, this ability was just observed significantly when Ag was administrated to pregnant rats in ionic form. Histopathological examination of brain tissue revealed the high incidence of hippocampal sclerosis in both Ag-NPs and AgNO3 treated dams. As a conclusion, the NOAEL values reported in previous studies may be needed to adjust in the light of findings from this study.