Türkiye'de Piyasalarda Bulunan Bazı Curcuma Longa L. Rizom Ve Preparatları Üzerinde Farmakognozik Araştırmalar
Aksu Kapucu, Şule
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Curcuma longa L. rhizomes which are mainly used as spice and for medical purposes in Turkey, are rich in curcumin with (1E, 6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione structure. Three ungrounded rhizomes and two different herbal preparations were bought from different markets. A detailed study on curcumin, Curcuma longa L. powder drug and herbal preparations was realized. Curcumin and demethoxycurcumin have been isolated from curcumin-rich fractions, and their chemical structures were identified by chromatographic (TLC, CC) and spectroscopic (UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR) methods. The essential oil with a yield of 1.2% was analyzed by GC and GC-MS methods, and the ar-turmerone (38.4%) was found as the main compound. Assay methods have been developed for curcumin and curcuminoids by using the HPLC, LC-MS-MS and spectroscopic methods, and repeatable results were obtained. It was observed that Curcuma longa L. drug could include pesticides such as endosulphane and DDT, high levels of minerals such as potassium, calcium and magnesium, and heavy metals such as lead. Antioxidant activity of curcumin was assessed by in vitro trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) method, antigenotoxic and protective effect of curcumin were assessed by in vitro alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (COMET) method, and antimicrobial activity was assessed by disc diffusion method. Curcumin has showed antioxidant activity properties to ABTS in 2 M and above concentrations, dose-dependent protective property to genotoxicity by H2O2; on the other hand it has showed no antimicrobial activity against some bacteria and fungus in 25-50 M concentrations. The results showed that the samples that we bought have nearly similar compounds and the herbal preparations in the market have enough quantity of curcumin.