Kaynak Yoğun Sektörler Arasında Endüstriyel Simbiyoz Yaklaşımı ile Akış Modellemesi ve Optimizasyonu
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Clean production practices have been widely used all over the world. However, additional approaches are needed both for reducing environmental impacts and for economic gains. One of these approaches is the concept of Industrial Symbiosis. This concept is defined as the operation of independent enterprises, such as the ecosystem in nature, in a mutual benefit partnership. Various eco-industrial parks, which are the performed examples of this concept are created around the world. In these parks, material flows are circulated in a closed loop, achieving gains such as resource efficiency, clean production and thus contribute to the circular economy, which is one of the most focused issues in the world. In line with this impression, many studies in the open literature have been reviewed. Although there are various studies about the modelling of systems created for this purpose, any study on increasing resource efficiency in resource intensive sectors, could be reached. In current studies in different sectors, it has been observed that wastes and raw material substitution rates, which are decisive in the technical characteristics of the end product, are not fully analysed while designing interchange flows between the plants. Therefore, it is aimed to design an organized industrial zone in resource intensive sectors by using industrial symbiosis methodology and to see the benefits. With this motivation, resource intensive sectors have been explored. Since this study is aimed to guide future applications, the production and waste amounts and future trends of these sectors were determined in the first step of the study. Then, the mass inputs and outputs in the production processes were investigated. Based on these data, an organized industrial zone including related facilities has been designed. Following that, production scenarios have been created with different substitution rates of the wastes to be used in cement and concrete production which are determined as two main products in this study. These scenarios have been mathematically modelled after the costs have been determined and optimized to meet the desired product quantity at minimum cost. The results shows that, the cement plant will be able to produce the annual cement volume in the rate of 50% with electric arc furnace slag from steel production, 39% with ladle furnace slag from steel production, and 11% with glass from construction and demolition waste. Besides, the concrete production plant will be able to produce the annual concrete amount in the rate of 70% with electric arc furnace slag from steel production, 24% with aluminium oxide indirectly from secondary aluminium production, and 7% with calcined clay from the ceramic industry. These new production scenarios have resulted in gains in resource consumption, waste utilization and production costs. There is 54% reduction in resource consumption, including 16% for cement and 38% for concrete plant. The designed system reduced the amount of waste disposed across Europe by 35% via using the wastes as secondary raw material. Furthermore, according to the designed system, production costs decreased by 4% and 5% in cement and concrete production, respectively.
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