Tip 2 Diyabetli Hastalarda Tuz Tüketimi ve Beslenme Durumunun Değerlendirilmesi
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The study was to aim emphasise the importance of implementing proper eating suggestions in patients with diabetes by examining their eating habits and the metabolic control of diabetes through salt intake. This research was conducted on a total of 103 people, 70 female and 33 male, aged between 19 and 64 who are patients of Kazan Hamdi Eriş State Hospital and have been using oral antidiabetic medication and/or insulin. A questionnaire was applied to collect data on patients’ food consumption frequency and food consumption records and some anthropometric measurements (weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference and hip/waist ratio) and lab tests (pre-prandial blood glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, triglyceride, ALT, AST, spot and 24h urine sodium, potasium, calcium, creatinine) were taken. To identify daily salt intake 24h urine sodium excretion was measured. Patients’ daily salt intake in average was 2330.7±1047.7 mg Na/day, namely 5826.9±2619.4 mg NaCl. Patients who partook in this study was divided into two groups based on their salt intake: ≤2300 mgNa/day and >2300 mgNa/day. 53.4%of the participants (n=55) has a salt intake of ≤2300 mgNa/day while 46.6 %(n=48) has >2300 mgNa/day. During the course of this study it was also observed that patients whose salt intake is ≤2300 mgNa/day had diabetes, in average, for 5.87±4.9 years while those who consume salt >2300 mgNa/day had diabetes for 8.08±4.9 years. A significant relation was found between the duration of diabetes and salt intake (p<0.05). For the metabolic control of diabetes, the two groups did not demonstrate a significant difference in pre-prandial blood glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and AST levels. A statistically significant correlation was not found between the indicators of salt intake and metabolic control of diabetes but a positive correlation was found between systolic and diastolic blood pressures and daily salt intake of the patients (respectively, r=0.195, r=0.348, p<0.05). Although there was not a significant difference between the salt intake and the energy consumption of other nutrients in female patients (p>0.05), statistically significant differences were found in protein percentage, B2 vitamin and calcium levels in male patients with high salt intake and in cholesterol and C vitamin levels in male patients with lower salt intake (p<0.05). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that: salt intake in patients with type 2 diabetes was high; salt intake did not affect the metabolic control of diabetes but increased blood pressure. To keep diabetes in control and prevent and treat any further complications, it is very important that dieticians implement dietary programmes specifically planned for the individual. Strategies assessing the salt intake of patients with diabetes and attempting to reduce their salt intake must be developed.