Türkiye'de Organik ve Klasik Yöntemlerle Üretilen Zeytinyağlarının Ağır Metal İçeriğine Yönelik Bir Araştırma
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The rapid industrialization in the second half of the twentieth century caused important environmental problems. In order to cope with these problems alternative agricultural production systems have been established. Organic agriculture practices have an important role within this context. However, recently only a few studies have shown the heavy metal content of organically produced olive oil.The aim of this study was to determine the chrome (Cr), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (Ar), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) content of conventional or organically produced extra virgin olive oils from 12 different manufacturers in the Aegean Region of Turkey. Every brand of olive oils that were used in this study manufactures both conventional and organic samples (12 different brands). The heavy metal content of the samples was analyzed with Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Further statistical analyses (independest samples "t" test and one-way “anova” test) were performed to examine the differences between organic and conventional samples. Results showed that the 52Cr, 53Cr, 56Fe, 59Co, 60Ni, 62Ni, 63Cu, 65Cu, 66Zn, 75As, 111Cd, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb content of natural virgin olive oils was 534.27±1.58 ng/mL, 146.03±8.18 ng/mL, 2349.27±160.49 ng/mL, 2.90±1.19 ng/mL, 193.87±10.47 ng/mL, 187.77±7.76 ng/mL, 131.46±9.11 ng/mL, 133.57±9.53 ng/mL, 572.73±23.94 ng/mL, 5.30±0.51 ng/mL, 3.32±2.23 ng/mL, 85.80±6.42 ng/mL, 83.20±5.67 ng/mL, 84.11±5.50 ng/mL and organically grown extra virgin olive oils was 471.70±5.20 ng/mL, 216.89±8.44 ng/mL, 1618.33±188.20 ng/mL, 3.36±0.16 ng/mL, 165.18±35.40 ng/mL, 148.23±28.93 ng/mL, 125.53±4.78 ng/mL, 131.37±5.59 ng/mL, 599.50±16.00 ng/mL, 5.45±0.39 ng/mL, 2.42±0.61 ng/mL, 39.09±6.42 ng/mL, 38.08±5.67 ng/mL, 38.24±0.98 ng/mL, respectively. The 52Cr and 53Cr contents of organic and conventional olive oils was significantly different (p<0.05) in all brands whereas the content of other heavy metals exhibited variable results depending on the brand (p>0.05). Therefore, these data indicated that the production and processing practices that were not applied in controlled conditions may influence the heavy metal levels of organically produced olive oils.