Anne Sütündeki Aflatoksin M1 ve Okratoksin A Miktarları ile Annenin Beslenme Durumu Arasındaki İlişkinin Değerlendirilmesi
Barut Uyar, Banugül
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The objective of this study was to determine levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in breast milk and evaluate its relation with mother’s nutritional status. Seventy samples of breast milk analyzed in this study were collected from randomly selected and volunteer mothers gave birth in a Maternity hospital in Ankara and are in lactation period for 20-65 days. Descriptive specifications, 24-hour food consumptions and quantified food frequency were obtained with questionnaire form and face to face interview method and body weight and height were measured. Body composition was analyzed with Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis. Mycotoxin levels of human milks were analyzed with ELISA. AFM1 and OTA was determined in 9 (12.9%) and 34 (48.6%) samples of human milk, on average 5.73±0.74 ng/L and 0.14±0.03 ng/mL, respectively. In 7 mothers with AFM1 > level of detection (DL) OTA was also >DL. Forty two point six% of mothers with AFM1<DL and 44.4% of mothers with AFM1>DL were in 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 BMI group. In mothers with AFM1<DL levels, total vegetable, sugar and sunflower oil consumptions were higher than mothers with AFM1>DL and total biscuit-cake and green olive consumption were lower (p<0.1). In mothers with OTA<DL levels; total meat products, lemon and potato consumptions were lower than mothers with OTA>DL levels and apple consumptions were higher (p<0.1). Quantified-food frequencies were also compared according to AFM1 and OTA levels for reflecting general nutritional habits and different results were found. Consumptions of yogurt, pasta, tarhana, total cereal and milk puddings were higher in mothers with AFM1<DL than AFM1>DL, while total vegetable consumption was lower in mothers with AFM1<DL. According to OTA levels, green vegetable ant total vegetable consumption in mothers with OTA<DL was lower than mothers with OTA>DL and coffee consumption was higher. The ratio of mothers preferred buying unpackaged and unprocessed milk and milk products were 4.9% in mothers AFM1<DL and 11.1% in mothers with AFM1>DL. In terms of OTA, it was 2.8% and 8.8% in <DL and >DL mothers, respectively. The ratio of mothers preferring unpackaged cheese was 11.1% in AFM1>DL and 6.6% in AFM1<DL. While statistically not analyzed, AFM1 and OTA1 >DL mothers prefer buying nuts, dried fruits, spices and tomato sauce as unpackaged. While the ratio of mothers throwing the moldy cheese was higher in <DL groups, the ratio of mothers consuming moldy cheese after washing it was higher in >DL groups. The results of the study indicate the contamination of human milk with mycotoxins, however studies with large samples are needed in order to set out the links of mycotoxins with foods. Consumption of safe food is important for public health especially for nutrition of mothers and infants who are within primary risk groups in public. Using human milk, which has numerous nutritional habits, safely in infant nutrition and preventing possible contamination risks are important. To provide these, guaranteeing conscious nutrition of mothers by providing education activities for them, determination of mycotoxin levels in human milk and taking individual precautions and also prevention of mycotoxin formation in human milk with technological methods must be taken into consideration.