The Ankara Melange: An Indicator of Tethyan Evolution of Anatolia
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The Ankara Melange is a complex formed by imbricated slices of limestone block melanges (Karakaya and Hisarlikaya Formations), Neotethyan ophiolites (Eldivan, Ahlat and Edige ophiolites), post-ophiolitic cover units (Mart and Kavak formations) and Tectonic Melange Unit (Hisarkoy Formation or Derekoy Melange). The Karakaya and Hisarlikaya formations are roughly similar and consist mainly of limestone block melange. Nevertheless, they represent some important geological differences indicating different geological evolution. Consequently, the Karakaya and Hisarlikaya formations are interpreted as Eurasian and Gondwanian marginal units formed by fragmentation of the Gondwanian carbonate platform during the continental rifting of the Neotethys in the Middle Triassic time. During the latest Triassic, Neotethyan lithosphere began to subduct beneath the Eurasian continent and caused intense deformation of the marginal units. The Eldivan, Ahlat and Edige ophiolites represent different fragments of the Neotethyan oceanic lithosphere emplaced onto the Gondwanian margin during the Albian-Aptian, middle Turonian and middle Campanian, respectively. The Eldivan Ophiolite is a NE-SW trending and a nearly complete assemblage composed, from bottom to top, of a volcanic-sedimentary unit, a metamorphic unit, peridotite tectonites, cumulates and sheeted dykes. The Eldivan Ophiolite is unconformably covered by Cenomanian-Lower Turonian sedimentary unit. The Eldivan Ophiolite is overthrust by the Ahlat Ophiolite in the north and Edige Ophiolite in the west. The Ahlat ophiolite is an east-west oriented assemblage comprised of volcanic-sedimentary unit, metamorphic unit, peridotite tectonites and cumulates. The Edige Ophiolite consists of a volcanic-sedimentary unit, peridotite tectonites, dunite, wherlite, pyroxenite and gabbro cumulates. The Tectonic Melange Unit is a chaotic formation of various blocks derived from ophiolites, from the Karakaya and Hisarlikaya formations and from post-ophiolitic sedimentary units. It was formed during the collision between Anatolian Promontory and Eurasian Continent in the middle Campanian time.