Spreading, Proliferation And Differentiation Of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells On Chitosan Scaffolds Immobilized With Rgd Or Fibronectin
Sana, Farzin Asghari
Yurtsever, Merve Capkin
Bayrak, Gokce Kaynak
Tuncay, Ekin Ozge
Kiremitci, Arlin S.
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Nowadays, human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) became more attractive for therapeutic purposes because of their high proliferation and differentiation potential. Thus, coupling the desired cellular characteristics of hDPSCs with good biomaterial properties of the chitosan scaffolds provide an interesting approach for tissue engineering applications. On the other hand, scaffold surface modification is also needed to promote stem cell adhesion since chitosan lacks adhesion motifs to support direct cell anchorage. In this study, hDPSCs were isolated from third molars of healthy female individuals (aged 16-25) with enzymatic digestion. For cell culture studies, the chitosan scaffolds which have approximately 9 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness with interconnected structure were prepared by freeze-drying. To support cellular attachment the scaffolds were covalently immobilized with either RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) or fibronectin (Fn) molecules. Cells were seeded on chitosan scaffolds with or without immobilized RGD and fibronectin. Cell attachment, spreading, adhesion behaviors and proliferation capacity were examined by scanning electron microscopy, immunofluorescence staining and PrestoBlue(A (R)) assays, respectively. In addition, differentiation potential of hDPSCs on Fn immobilized chitosan scaffolds was determined with real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. The results showed that chitosan scaffolds were not able to support stem cell attachment. hDPSCs on chitosan scaffolds formed spheroids more quickly and the size of spheroids were smaller than on chitosan-RGD while Fn-immobilized chitosan scaffolds strongly supported cellular attachment but not odontogenic differentiation. The results suggest that the Fn-immobilized chitosan scaffolds may serve as good three-dimensional substrates for dental pulp stem cell attachment and proliferation. In the case of dental regeneration, they must be supported by appropriate biosignals to induce odontogenic differentiation.