Enhanced Osteogenic Activity With Boron-Doped Nanohydroxyapatite-Loaded Poly(Butylene Adipate-Co-Terephthalate) Fibrous 3D Matrix
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In this study, three dimensional (3D) poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) fibrous scaffolds with more than 90% porosity were fabricated via wet electrospinning method. Amorphous hydroxyapatite (HAp) and boron (B) doped hydroxyapatite (B-HAp) nanoparticles were produced by microwave-assisted biomimetic precipitation and encapsulated into PBAT fibres with the ratio of 5% (w/w) in order to enhance osteogenic activity of the scaffolds. Cell culture studies were carried out with human bone marrow derived stem cells (hBMSCs) and they showed that alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the amounts of collagen and calcium were higher on B containing PBAT (B-HAp-PBAT) scaffolds during the 28-day culture period than that of the PBAT scaffolds. Moreover, hBMSCs cultivated on B-HAp-PBAT scaffolds showed significantly higher expression levels of both early and late stage osteogenic genes e.g. ALP, collagen I (COL-I), osteocalcin (OCN) and osteopontin (OPN) at day 28 than that of the PBAT scaffolds. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated that hBMSCs produced high amounts of mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM) mainly on the surface of the 3D matrices. This study demonstrates that boron-containing 3D nanofibrous PBAT scaffolds with their osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties can be used as alternative constructs for bone tissue engineering.