Effect of Neutrophil Apoptosis on Monocytic Cytokine Response to Porphyromonas Gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide
Van Dyke, TE
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Background: Neutrophil apoptosis may play a critical role in the resolution of inflammation by stimulating anti-inflammatory cytokine generation from monocytes. In this study, we investigated the effect of apoptotic neutrophils on interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-1 beta production from monocytes in response to Porphyromonas gingiualis lipopolysaccharide. Methods: Peripheral blood neutrophils from healthy individuals were isolated by sodium diatrizoate density gradient centrifugation. In order to induce apoptosis, neutrophils were cultured for 24 hours in modified Dulbecco's medium supplemented with 10% autologous serum. Cell apoptosis was quantified by Annexin V positivity and loss of CD16 expression on the cell surface. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from the same subjects; monocytes were purified by magnetic cell sorting and cultured with or without apoptotic or fresh neutrophils. Lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis was used for cell stimulation. IL-1 beta and IL-10 levels in supernatants were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: IL-10 generation was significantly increased in monocytes cultured with apoptotic neutrophils compared to monocytes alone or cocultured with fresh neutrophils (P < 0.05). IL-1 beta was suppressed both in resting and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytes in the presence of apoptotic neutrophils compared to monocytes alone or monocytes cultured with fresh neutrophils at all time points (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Neutrophil apoptosis provides a signal to monocytes, changing the phenotype of the monocyte resulting in the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and suppression of proinflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide.