The Effect of Bleaching Systems on the Gingiva and the Levels of Il-1 Beta and Il-10 in Gingival Crevicular Fluid
Cakir, F. Yalcin
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Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the color change and clinical periodontal parameters and to analyze the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients treated with different bleaching systems. Materials and Methods: According to pre-established criteria, 30 healthy volunteers were selected and randomly divided into three groups (n=10): G1, home bleaching (Opalescence 35% Carbamide Peroxide, CP); G2, chemically activated office bleaching (Opalescence Xtra Boost 38% Hydrogen Peroxide, HP); G3, light-activated office bleaching (Opalescence Xtra 35% HP). Treatments were applied according to the manufacturer's recommendations. After shade evaluation, clinical periodontal parameters were evaluated as follows: gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), and bleeding on probing (BOP). GCF were collected from six maxillary sites per patient at baseline (TO), one day (T1) after bleaching treatments, and 15 days (T2) after bleaching treatments and analyzed for IL-1 beta and IL-10 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were subjected to statistical analysis (p<0.05). Results: Spectrophotometer readings exhibited significant differences among the groups (p<0.05). The Delta E values (color change) of G3 were statistically higher than the other groups (p<0.05). The PI of G3 after 15 days was significantly higher than the PI of G2 after 15 days (p<0.05). The GI of G2 was lower than that of G1 and G3 before bleaching (p<0.05). According to BOP, no significant differences were found among the groups at any time intervals (p>0.05). In G3, the total amount of IL-1 beta after 15 days was higher than the amount before bleaching (p<0.05). The IL-10 total amount and concentration levels did not exhibit any significant differences among the groups or by time (p>0.05). Conclusion: Home and chemically activated bleaching systems could be considered as safer in tooth whitening and maintaining gingival health when compared with a light-activated bleaching system, which might lead to increased proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1 beta).