Kolon Kanserli Hastalarda Interlökin 21 ve Interlökin32 Gen Ekspesyon Düzeyleri ve Metastaz Ilişkisi
Öner, Gizem Övgü
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Tumor microenvironment contains tumor cells, immune cells, stroma and stroma associated immune cells. This microenvironment of the immune system cells release chemokines and cytokines which play an important role in the prognosis of the tumor and determine the immune phenotype of the tumor. IL-32 and IL-21 are pro-inflammatory cytokines released by immune system cells. IL-32 is released by Th, NK, macrophages and epithelium and IL-21 is relased by Th, Tfh, Th17, NKT cells. The gene expression levels of these cytokines changes according to their location. Present study aims to evaluate the gene expression levels of IL-21 and IL-32 and their relationship with clinicopathologic parameters in patients with colon cancer. 31(17F) patients with diagnosis of colon cancer were included. Samples were obtained from normal and tumor tissues during surgery. After RNA isolation, IL-21 and IL-32 gene expression levels were measured using real-time PCR. The relative gene expression levels in tissues were calculated using using 2-∆∆Ct method. The relations between expression levels and tumor differentiation, tumor stage, presence of vascular, perineural invasion and lymph node metastasis were investigated. While IL-32 gene expression levels were found to be increased in tumor tissues (median: 1.16). IL-32 were increased in 51.6 % and decreased in 48.4% of the patients. IL-21 gene expression levels were found to be decreased (median:0.911) in 50% of the patients. While IL-32 expression levels were low in early stages of the tumors, continued to increase with the stage till passing the colonic wall, but were found to be decreased again with the involvement of lymph nodes. These expression levels were also in correlation with the pathological T stages (pT) of the tumor. IL-32 expression levels were also decreased significantly with the increased number of the lymph nodes with metastasis. On the other hand, expression levels of IL-21 increased significantly with the presence of vascular invasion. In conclusion, our findings on IL-21 and IL-32 expressed by tumor microenvironment reveals that IL-32 expression increased to control tumor growth, but levels are decreased with the increased number of involved lymph nodes. Increased levels of IL-21 with vascular invasion and lymph node involvement, together with the changes on IL-32, indicates the role for cytokines in tumor growth and invasion in colon cancer.