Profesyonel Voleybolcularda Serum 25(Oh)D Vitamini Düzeyi İle Beslenme Durumu ve Fiziksel Performans İlişkisi
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In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and dietary factors, body composition, physical performance, and inflammatory/oxidative stress markers in elite volleyball players. Forty-seven healthy elite male volleyball players aged 18-36 who are registered to Turkey Volleyball Federation were enrolled for the baseline measurements (early season), 37 athletes completed the second measurements (end season). Anthropometric/performance/body composition measurements, routine biochemical and urine analyses of the participants were evaluated. Serum 25(OH)D, Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) and calcium levels of the athletes, besides some inflammatory (serum C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6)) and oxidative stress markers’ (malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)) levels were measured. To assess nutritional status of the participants, 3-day food consumption records were collected at the beginning and end of the season. Three-day (1-off/1-single/1-double training) 24-hours physical activity records, SenseWear® Armband records were collected in the baseline and follow-up measurements to assess the physical activity of the individuals. Besides the anthropometric measurements (circumferential and skinfold thickness (SF)) and body composition analysis (BIA); performance variables (handgrip, 0-10/20m sprints, vertical jump, Wingate tests) of the athletes were evaluated. Serum 25(OH)D levels were below the optimal for the majority of the athletes for both periods (beginning/end of season: 22,6±8,4/17,5±4,5 IU/L); vitamin D levels, which was “inadequate” at the early season, decreased significantly towards the end of the season and was “deficient” levels. In the early season, there was a negative correlation between 25(OH)D levels and chest SF (r=-0,427, p=0,003), hip circumference (r=-0,371, p=0,01), MUAC (r=-0,383, p=0,008). In the early season, 25(OH)D levels was positively correlated with waist/hip ratio (r=0,300, p=0,04). At the end of the season, the negative relationship between 25(OH)D levels and MUAC was significant. For the beginning/end season, the relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and performance variables was not significant (p>0,05). At the end of the season, the average daily energy, macro, and micronutrient intake of the athletes, were not different compared to the beginning (p>0,05). The intake of all nutrients was at least within Dietary Guidelines for Turkey recommendations; whereas the intake of some nutrients (protein, A, E, niacin, B2, B6, B12, phosphorus, iron, zinc) were higher than recommended (>133%). At the early season, serum 25(OH)D levels were negatively associated with dietary total energy (r=-0,309, p=0,035), fat (r=-0,292, p=0,047), MUFA (r=-0,346, p=0,017), PUFA (r=-0,305, p=0,037), n-6 fatty acids (r=-0,306, p=0,036), n-6/n-3 ratio (r=-0,295, p=0,044), vitamin E (r=-0,347, p=0,017), sodium (r=-0,292, p=0,046) intake. At the end of the season, serum 25(OH)D levels were positively correlated with dietary retinol intake (r=0,353, p=0,032), n-6/n-3 ratio (r=0,361, p=0,028). As a result, serum 25(OH)D levels are associated with certain dietary factors, body composition, physical performance, inflammatory/oxidative stress levels. Further research is needed to clarify this multifactorial relationship.