CÜCE KERTENKELENİN, Parvilacerta parva (BOULENGER, 1887), ANADOLU YARIMADASI'NDAKİ BİYOCOĞRAFYASI VE HAPLOGRUP KOMPOZİSYONU ÜZERİNE ARAŞTIRMALAR
ŞAHİN, MEHMET KÜRŞAT
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In this study, morphological and phylogenetic relationships between the populations of the dwarf lizard (Parvilacerta parva), whose distribution area is large Anatolian Peninsula, were investigated. In addition, how the climatic factors affect the distribution of the species today and in the past (at the last glacial maximum) has been demonstrated, and species distribution model maps of have been drawn and possible refigiums have been determined. The modeling results showed that especially climatic factors are effective in colonizing Anatolian populations of dwarf lizard. Lizards, which were in refugias among Western Anatolia and Van region in the past, are currently spreading to steppe habitats of Anatolia. Statistical analysis on morphological characters have shown that there is a macro-regional colonization as a result of past climate-based mobility rather than today's geography and landscapes in accordance with the distribution dynamics of the species. In this context, gradual changes and significant correlations were detected between the Eastern, Central and Western Anatolian macro-regions. Phylogenetic analyzes were performed on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (862 bp). The sequences of this gene were tested with maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. Although the bootstrap values of some branches cannot have very high scores due to it is just a within species study, it is observed that the Eastern Anatolian populations are in a separate clad compare to Central and Western Anatolian populations and the Western populations are labelled as the youngest populations by using Bayesian inference analysis. Divergence time analyzes have also shown that the seperations in the colonization of the species are climate-based rather than geographical barriers. Because of the optimal mild climatic conditions, the species is dispersed from the refugiums. As a result, every significant branching in the phylogenetic tree was found to coincide with the interglacial periods, especially in the Pleistocene age. It was also calculated that the species might be separated from the Fraas lizard (Parvilacerta fraasi), another member of the genus Parvilacerta, in the period when the effects of Messinian salinity crisis were observed.
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