Arı Poleni ve Arı Ekmeğinin Palinolojik, Kimyasal ve Antioksidan Kapasitelerinin Belirlenmesi
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Pollen which is a reproductive cell of angiosperms picks up during flower visits of honey bees. It is stored on the 3rd pair legs of honey bees, digestive enzymes are added and take into the hive. This pollen stored in honeycomb eyes, after digestive enzymes and honey added the honeycomb eyes are covered with wax. As a result of the activity of the bacteria coming from the digestive secretions of the bee, fermentation occurs in these honeycomb cells. The product formed after fermentation is called bee bread. Thanks to the high protein, fatty acid, lipid, sterol, vitamin, mineral, etc. content, pollen collected with the help of the traps is presented to the consumers as a food supplement. Recent studies have shown that the bioavailability of bee bread is higher than bee pollen. Therefore, it is preferred to use bee bread as a food supplement instead of bee pollen. In this study, plant origin of bee pollen and bee bread samples were determined by palynological methods. In addition, chemical content and antioxidant capacity were evaluated and compared. Although the bee pollen collected from the same hives and the plant origin of bee bread were similar, differences were observed in the pollen frequency % of some taxa. Total protein (%), moisture (%) and total fatty acid contents of bee bread samples are lower than bee pollen. The total protein content of bee pollen samples ranged from 17,5% to 21,7%, total fatty acid content ranged from 67,6% to 86,5% and moisture content ranged from 17,3% to 23%. The total protein content of the bee bread samples ranged from 17,5% to 21,7%, the total fatty acid content ranged from 60,2% to 79,38 % and the moisture content ranged from 17,5% to 21,2%. Total phenolic content of bee pollen samples ranged from 266,93 to 434,24 mg GAE (Gallic acid)/g, total flavonoid content ranged from 2,62 to 4,44 mg QE (Quercetin)/g. Total phenolic content of bee bread samples ranged from 82,57 to 127,07 mg GAE/g, total flavonoid content ranged from 1,81 to 3,74 mg QE/g. According to antioxidant capacity analyzes, DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrihydrazil radical scavenging) values of bee pollen were 3,08 ± 0,47 mg TEAC (Trolox equal antioxidant capacity)/g and 3,85 ± 0,63 mg TEAC/g; In the bee bread, that values were determined between 1.29 ± 1.13 mg TEAC/g and 3.82 ± 0.26 mg TEAC/g. ABTS (2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) capacity values of bee pollen were 1.80 ± 0.02 mg TEAC /g and 5.98 ± 0.10 mg TEAC /g; in bee bread that values were determined between 0.375 ± 0.02 mg TEAC /g and 1.55 ± 0.12 mg TEAC/g. As a result, the similarity of botanical origins of bee pollen and bee bread samples obtained from the same hives has been proved statistically. It was observed that the samples were compatible with the flora of the region where they were collected in terms of botanical origins. When the biochemical contents were compared, it was observed that total crude protein and total fatty acid content of bee pollen samples were higher content than bee bread. 22 different fatty acids were determined in bee pollen and bee bread samples. Linoleic (ALA) acid and palmitic acid were detected in high amounts in all samples. Followed by, the presence of linoleic acid, eicosanoic acid and oleic acid was observed in all samples. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of bee pollen samples were higher than bee bread. In addition, antioxidant capacity of bee pollen was found to be higher than bee bread. As a result of this project; botanical, chemical content and antioxidant capacity of bee pollen and bee bread samples depending on many parameters such as where is located, the way of gathering, climate, storage and most importantly flora. According to international literature, it was observed that the studies with bee bread and pollen samples were made with samples obtained from different regions and different hives. In our study, for the first time, the botanical origin was determined and compared of the bee bread and bee pollen samples which collected from the same hives. Because bee pollen and bee bread samples in the same region, the same flora or even in the same hive conditions to compare; content determination is very important for studies such as geographical indication and standardization. When all these conditions are evaluated, it has a unique working feature in this field of study.