Supraorbital Foramen and Hypoglossal Canal Bridging in Ancient/Modern Anatolian Populations: Implications for Worldwide Population Distribution
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Supraorbital foramen (SOF) and hypoglossal canal bridging (HGCB) show variation in their morphology and frequency in different populations. It is established that the frequency distribution of these traits are efficient to distinguish major human populations. In this study, the prevalence of SOF and HGCB in 11 Anatolian populations from distinct time periods and locations was examined. Frequency differences of SOF and HGCB were evaluated for different age and sex groups. Following Dodo and Sawada (2010) for SOF and HGCB population correlations, this study is the first to present the place of Anatolian populations among world populations. Although significant differences in major human populations were observed by previous studies, there were no significant differences found amongst the Anatolian populations (Today Turkey) in relation to SOF. Similarly, supraorbital edge over the number of holes in size and position showed no significant difference. Though there was an age-related increase in frequency, evaluated data demonstrated no statistical difference between distinct age and sex groups in relation to SOF. The results of evaluation of SOF frequency within HGCB Anatolian people seem to cluster together most similarly with Europeans, in concordance with recent molecular genetic studies, among the 72 world populations. At the end, this study concludes that the frequency distribution of SOF and HGCB is an effective tool to distinguish genetically distant major human populations in large scale, but it is ineffective in comparing chronologically, geographically, and genetically proximate local populations. It is seen that this results are valid for ancient and modern populations.