The Effect of Feedback on Serve And Bump Skills Training In Volleyball
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Background: The purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of visual, verbal and verbal-visual feedback on the success of serve and bump skills training in volleyball. Methods: The total participants of the study were 42 university students. All the participants attended the PE lectures during the 2012-2013 academic years in a form of 3 different classes which consisted of 14 students per each. Each class was assigned as an experimental group and received different feedback styles for bump and serve skills in volleyball. The feedback was as follows: verbal feedback (mean age= 12.28 ± 0.46; sport age=1.85 ± 0.62), visual feedback (12.14 ± 0.37; 1.66 ± 0.44) and verbal-visual feedback (12.21 ± 0.42; 1.91 ± 0.38). Considering the pre-test/ post-test design, the data collected from students’ test scores in cognitive domain and video records were assessed and scored by experts related to the achievements in the psychomotor area. Descriptive statistics and T- Test analysis was used to investigate if there were any significant differences between pre-test and post-test scores of each experimental group. Also, an ANOVA Test was conducted to assess the significant differences between groups. Results: Results showed that there were meaningful differences between the levels of success in verbal, visual and verbal-visual feedback of pre-test and post-test scores of each group in terms of cognitive domain [F(39,2)=26.87;p=0.001] and [F(39,2)=7.807;p=0.001]. For each type of evaluation, all feedback styles increased the success levels of bumps and serve skills of the participants. Conclusions: Consequently, the findings of the present work suggested that the use of verbal-visual feedback styles that were given by teachers' instructions and video records can positively affect the learning process of bump and serve skills in volleyball.