Bir Sezon Boyunca Sürdürülen Çok Düzeyli Hedef Belirleme Programının Takım Değişkenleri Üzerine Etkisi
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Durdubaş, D., The Effects of a Season-Long Multilevel Goal-Setting Intervention on Team Variables, Hacettepe University, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Sport Sciences and Technology Program Doctor of Philosophy Thesis, Ankara, 2020. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of a season-long multilevel goal-setting intervention on team cohesion, collective efficacy, and individual performance levels. Participants were 81 female volleyball players (Mage=16,57;SD=0,25) from 6 teams that were competing in regional leagues. According to their eligibility for the program implementation, the teams were assigned to the experimental group (n=3;Mage=16,76;SD=0,43), where the multi-level goal setting program was applied, and the control group (n=3;Mage=16,38;SD=0,26) where no systematic intervention was applied. All participants completed questionnaires assessing perceptions of team cohesion and collective efficacy at 3 time-points (beginning, midseason, and end-season). Also, the individual performance levels of participants in the experimental group were assessed twice, at the beginning and the end of the season with performance profiles. The differences of collective efficacy and team cohesion perceptions between the control group and the experimental group examined through MANCOVA analysis which first measurements were controlled. Findings suggest that there was a significant difference between groups in collective efficacy and team cohesion perceptions [F(6,67)=4,393; p=0,001, 2=,28]. Follow-up ANCOVA analysis showed that collective efficacy and team cohesion perceptions within the intervention group tended to rise, those perceptions within the control group decreased throughout the season [FII(1,72)=6,909:p=.011,2=,09; FIII(1,72)=5,327:p=,024, 2=,07]. In addition, there was no significant difference between preseason and end-season measurements of performance profile levels in the intervention group (z=-1,040;p=,298,r=-,23). These results highlight the positive effects of the multilevel goal-setting program on team cohesion and collective efficacy perceptions.