Osmanlı'da Karantina Uygulama Süreçleri ve Tepkiler (1865-1914)
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Starting with the adoption of sedentary life epidemic diseases became a part of life. As a result of interaction between communities wich is a outcome of the commerce, travel, expeditions, pilgrimages and wars the spread of epidemics increased. Due to the fact that the Ottoman geography was on a cross-continental transition route, it got its share of these epidemic diseases and almost always struggled with epidemics. Epidemic diseases such as cholera, malaria, variola, typhus, and especially plague, have cost the lives of millions of people and have left deep scars in the society. The Ottoman Empire decided to implement an empirewide quarantine, as it already was one of the measures taken against epidemics in many parts of the world, relatively late, in 1838. However, the reaction of the population to the quarantine implemented by the state could turn fatalistic. In order to prevent these reactions, rignt at the beginning a fatwa was issued saying that the quarantine in line with the religion. At the same t ime, writings on the benefits of the quarantine were published in Takvim-i Vekayi (official gazette) with the purpose of raising public awareness. In addition, the Ottoman State took both administrative and sanitary measures to combat epidemics, and in this context, appointments of physicians, vaccinators and pharmacists were made to places where diseases were intense. An addition to that, tebhirhane’s (disinfection stations) were established, and items, clothes, indoor spaces were disinfected. Vaccination studies have been initiated to end the diseases, and the telkihhane-i şahane (vaccination house) and the bakteriyolojihane-i şahane (bacteriology laboratory) were established to combat pandemics. The main goal of this thesis study is to reveal the quarant ine measures taken by the satate and the reactions against them experienced in the Ottoman Empire in the second half of the 19th century.