Chia Tohumunun (Salvia Hispanica L.) Ratlarda Kafeterya Diyeti ile İndüklenen Obezite Üzerine Etkisi
Çetin Karakaş, Cansu
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Today, obesity is an important health problem with an increasing rate globally. Fast foods and high-energy-dense foods have a great effect on this problem. In this case, the importance of herbal foods, which are a source of functional and bioactive nutritional components, is gradually increasing. In recent years, among alternative pseudo-grains, chia seeds draw attention due to their rich nutrient content and positive effects on health. The aim of this study was to examine the possible effects of chia seeds on the adverse effects caused by obesity in rats where obesity was induced by cafeteria-diet and to determine PPARα/γ, SREBP1c, UCP2 and FADS2 gene expression levels in the adipose tissue. Three-week-old male Wistar rats (n = 28) were monitored for 15 weeks in four groups: KON group (control diet, n = 7), CHIA group (control diet containing 20% chia seeds, n = 7), KAF group (control diet and cafeteria foods, n = 7) and the KAF + CHIA group (control diet containing 20% chia seeds and cafeteria foods, n = 7). At the end of the study period, all rats were euthanized and plasma and tissue samples (liver, brain, kidney, brown adipose tissue and white adipose tissues) were collected. Body water, protein and fat ratios were determined from animal carcasses. The concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, hemoglobin A1c, insulin, leptin, C peptide, and adiponectin were examined in plasma. Besides, SREB1c, UCP2, PPARα, PPARγ and FADS2 gene expression levels were analyzed in adipose tissue. Total dietary energy intake (kcal/day) was, KAF+CHIA, KAF, CHIA and KON, from highest to lowest, respectively (p<0.001). At the end of the study, the lowest body weight was found in the KON group (375.89±27.92 g) whereas the CAF group (613.07±46.73 g) had the highest weight. The highest weight gain was observed in the KAF group and the least in the KON group. Body fat ratio was found to be the highest at the KAF+CHİA group (17.49±1.55%), and the lowest at the KON group (9.56±1.03%) (p<0.05). Total white adipose tissue weight was the highest in KAF group whereas the lowest in KON group (p<0.05). Among the plasma parameters, only the difference in leptin levels between the groups was found to be significant (KAF:6.26±1.78 and KON:1.20±0.26 ng/mL; p<0.05). Relative gene expression levels of SREBP-1c, UCP2, PPARα and FADS2 were changed in adipose tissue, between the groups (p<0.05). SREBP-1c relative gene expression levels were found to be the highest in KAF+ CHIA group, and the lowest in KAF group. KON group had the highest relative gene expression level of UCP2 whereas KAF+CHIA group was determined to be the lowest. PPARα, PPARγ and FADS2 relative gene expression levels were observed to be the highest in KON group, and the lowest in CAF group. This study demonstrated that, chia seeds had a reducing effect of body weight, weight gain, and the amount of adipose tissue and showed some positive results on adipose tissue gene expression levels and some plasma parameters when given with an obesogenic diet. The results of this study are thought to guide therapeutic dose studies of chia seeds as a functional dietary component that can be used for treatment after obesity development.