TÜRKÇE SÖZLÜK’TE “AR.” (ARAPÇA) OLARAK ETİKETLENEN MADDE BAŞI KELİMELERDEKİ ANLAM DEĞİŞMELERİ
ABU HANNOUD, Sawsan
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It is known that many words from different languages in the world are used in the Turkish language.One of the languages in which there is a lot of word transition in Turkey Turkish is Arabic. The first ones to be incorporated from Arabic to Turkish language were religious words. Later, this transition was followed by Arabic suffixes, prepositions, reduplications, expressions, idioms and proverbs. Some of the Arabic words that have been incorporated intoTurkish have preserved their meanings, while others have undergone a change in meaning and meter. The change in the meaning of Arabic quote words in Turkish is a remarkable issue for both Arabs and Turks. It is known that Turks tried to preserve the meanings of Arabic words throughout the history. However, it is impossible for them not to change over time as they are being used. Rather than taking linguistic elements from Arabic, the Turks derived new Arabic words, terms and combinations from Arabic roots. In this study, Arabic words were compiled from the Turkish Dictionary, which is the latest edition of the TDK (2019), and the words were analyzed in order to determine the latest state of Arabic words derived from Arabic roots. The purpose of our study is to identify Arabic words whose meanings have changed in TD and then classify these words according to the basic forms of their semantic changes. It is also to explain the Arabic words in TD that are not found in Arabic or used by Arabs. In our study, Arabic words whose meanings have changed are classified under the headings of transition to semantic shift, semantic broadening and semantic narrowing. Under the classification of semantic shift, words that are plural in Arabic and whose meanings have changed as singular in Turkish are given as a subheading. In the last two parts of the study, Arabic words in the Turkish Dictionary that are not used or found in Arabic were analyzed. As a result of our study, it has been determined that the meaning of 1327 Arabic words out of 5512 in TD has changed. From these words whose meanings have changed, 652 words have acquired another meaning. 44 words have been used as singular in Turkish and changed their meaning while they are plurals in Arabic. It has been determined that 588 words have semantic broadening and 43 words have semantic narrowing. In TD, while the number of Turkish words derived from Arabic roots but not used in Arabic is 204, there are 17 words that are not found and used in Arabic.