Kötü Muameleye Maruz Kalan Ergenlerde Öz-Yeterlik Çalışmaları: Bir Sistematik Derleme
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Identifying the psycho-relational processes underlying the relationship between childhood maltreatment and self-efficacy is very important in terms of contributing to the solution of this problem. However, studies that include adolescents exposed to maltreatment and evaluate the factors affecting their self-efficacy levels are quite limited. The aim of this study is to determine the factors affecting self-efficacy in adolescents exposed to maltreatment. In this study, in which the systematic review methodology was used, the data were analyzed by narrative synthesis method. Literature search has been done in PubMed, Web of Science (WoS), and Scopus electronic databases and English words and word groups were searched using various combinations of "adolescence, maltreatment, abuse, neglect, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, physical abuse, psychological abuse, violence, and self-efficacy" keywords, following the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). Articles published between January 1, 2015, and November 15, 2020, in quantitative research design and English were included in the study. The studies obtained as a result of the literature review (n = 820) were first classified according to their titles and abstracts and recorded in the EndNote X7 program. Later, through the same program, repetitive studies (n = 311) were eliminated. The 509 studies obtained were eliminated with the title (n = 353) and abstract analysis (n = 106), respectively, following the inclusion criteria. The full texts of the remaining studies (n = 50) were downloaded and analyzed. Studies other than the selection criteria (inclusion and exclusion) (n = 31) and studies whose full texts were not available (n = 4) were eliminated. As a result of the examination of the full texts, 15 studies reporting results on the factors affecting self-efficacy in adolescents exposed to maltreatment were included in the analysis. The data extraction tool used in the study was created by the researchers. Research findings show that the negative effects of some factors on self-efficacy, such as childhood maltreatment, the violence of abuse, sexual abuse, the violence of sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, self-silencing strategies in romantic relationships, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, witnessing inter-parental violence, depression, emotion regulation difficulties, alcohol problems, internalizing symptoms and perceived stress. Also, research findings suggest that emotion regulation strategies, anger control, self-esteem, social support, trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy interventions, active coping skills, and perceived family support are effective factors in increasing self-efficacy. This systematic review concluded that there is evidence of the protective nature of self-efficacy in adolescents who have been exposed to maltreatment in the past, but more research is needed to confirm the present findings. In this context, it is recommended to conduct more experimental and longitudinal studies and to report the results of these studies following international guidelines.