Capecitabine Induced Hand-Foot Syndrome: A Systematic Review Of Case Reports
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Objective: Capecitabine, a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil, is currently used in the treatment of metastatic colorectal and breast cancers. The aim of this study was to review the pharmacological mechanisms, treatment strategies, and documented case reports of capecitabine-induced hand-foot syndrome (HFS). Methods: All case reports documented in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases up to February 2018 were searched and reviewed using the keywords capecitabine, hand-foot syndrome, and case report. Results:The database search identified 373 articles in the literature; of these, 88 articles (having 111 case reports) in the English or Turkish language having a full-text access were included in the study. The median duration of capecitabine-induced HFS was 28 (range, 7-140) days, and the daily dose of capecitabine ranged between 850 and 5000 mg/m2 in cases wherein capecitabine was applied as monotherapy(n=19). A dose reduction or treatment discontinuation, systemic or topical treatment alone or in combination, and the use of henna, vitamin E, or pyridoxine were preferred options in the treatment of HFS. Conclusion: Health care providers and patients should be aware of developing capecitabine-induced HFS and its risk factors. Early recognition and treatment initiation for HFS are important to maintain effective chemotherapy in patients with cancer.