Altered Hdl Particle In Sickle Cell Disease: Decreased Cholesterol Content Is Associated With Hemolysis, Whereas Decreased Apolipoprotein A1 Is Linked To Inflammation
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Background Hypocholesterolemia is the most frequently encountered lipid abnormality in sickle cell disease (SCD). We enrolled pediatric patients to determine the relationships between lipid profile and parameters of hemolysis, oxidative stress and chronic inflammation in SCD. Methods The study involved 35 pediatric SCD patients and 19 healthy controls. Patients were crisis-free and had not received transfusions for the last 3 months. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, LCAT, LDH, bilirubin, haptoglobin, iron, ferritin, hemin, serum amyloid A (SAA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), uric acid, ALT and GGT levels were evaluated in patients’ blood. Results Patients had hypocholesterolemia depicted by lower levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, as well as Apolipoprotein A1 and Apolipoprotein B compared to controls. The chronic hemolysis of SCD was evident in patients by higher LDH and bilirubin and almost undetectable haptoglobin levels. Hemin levels (as a measure of oxidized heme) were significantly increased in patients with SCD. Inflammation markers, SAA and MPO, were significantly increased in the patients as well. There were negative correlations between HDL-C and LDH, and Apo A1 and SAA. Hemin was positively correlated to MPO. Conclusion Hemolysis was associated with decreased HDL –C, and Inflammation was linked to decreased apolipoprotein A1 levels in our SCD patients. Therefore, we suggest that the HDL particle is altered during the course of the disease. The altered HDL in SCD may become dysfunctional and result with a slowing down of the reverse cholesterol transport.