Osmanlı Mısırı'nda Bir Yerel Hazine Örneği “Keşufiyye” (1711-1795)
Genç, Osman Onur
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This thesis aims to explain fiscal situation of Egypt in the eighteenth century, by using İjmal, mukataas, mühimme records and Egyptian Chronicles of the period, based on the example of the kushufiyyah tax in the context of the imperial treasury. In doing so, the relations between Mamluk Beys and the porte, which regained the socio-economic power in Egypt, will be discussed. Is there an organic connection between the collapse of the economic system established by the Ottoman Empire in Egypt within the second half of the eigteenth century and the seizure of power by the Mamluks? How did the decline in the amount of kushufiyah tax contained in the annual imperial treasury sent by the egyptian governor to the central government affected the perception of Istanbul on Egypt? Do they have any relation to decentralization in Egypt? What is the contribution of the active elements in the administration of the province notables of Cairo (Erkan-ı Kahire) to the Egyptian finances? The answers to these questions require to examine reappear of porte perception on Egypt. The allegiance of the provincial rulers of Memlûk origin, who were appointed as explorers in Egypt, is measured on the amount of kushufiyah tax collected from the villagers called fellah. The continuity in the amount of taxes collected is an indication of the informal agreement that kashifs made with the central government in the presence of the governor of Egypt. While this taxes were constantly increasing in the province, the amount of the imperial treasury which is sent to the central government has decline. When revenue of the treasury stabilised in the first half of the century, the amount of tax in the imperial treasury has fallen within the second half of the century. While there was a regular increase in costs, the available mukataas were distributed among the Mamluk factions. Accordingly, decentralization has emerged in Egypt. This decline has made it necessary for the central government to change its perception of Egypt's rule. In order to reorganize the porte understanding of governance in Egypt, it is necessary to eliminate Mamluks households which is the military, financial and administrative tutelage. Nevertheless Bulutkapan Ali Bey's rebellion (1768-1773) prevented such an attempt, and decentralization have settled permanently. The French invasion of Egypt at the end of the century (1798-1801) inhibited the central government from taking complete control of Egypt. That elimination of the Mamluks from Egyptian politics only occurred in 1811 during the absolute power of Muhammad Ali Pasha.
xmlui.dri2xhtml.METS-1.0.item-citationGENÇ, Osman Onur. (2021). Osmanlı Mısırı’nda Bir Yerel Hazine Örneği “Keşufiyye” (1711-1795), Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Ankara.
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