Klasik Belâgatte Mecaz ve Mecazi Anlatım
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The existence of figurative expressions has been noticed in the Quran and hadiths, but it took centuries for the concept of trope to grow into a term. In this period, trope was seen as a stylistic feature peculiar to Arabic and was explained in a way to include literary arts based on indirect speech. The invention and classification in detail of the term trope were made by Abd al-Qâhir al-Jurjânî (d. 471/1078-79). Abû Ya'qûb al-Sekkâkî (d. 626/1229) systematized the subject of trope on the basis of the logic based on the views of al-Jurjânî. Hatîb al-Qazwînî (d. 739/1338), who followed Sekkâkî, examined the trope issue with a critical approach and gave it its final form. Sa'ad al-Dîn al-Taftâzânî (d. 792/1390) followed Qazwînî to a large extent. Since the trope has reached to maturity stage in Arabic literature, a new approach has not developed in Turkish literature. Turkish balagha writers remained attached to Arab literature and mostly followed Qazwînî. In the works written under the influence of the Western rhetoric after the Tanzimat Period, no significant novelty has seen except the Ta'lîm-i Edebiyyât of Recâîzâde. During this period, the writers remained on the classical balagha in trope. In classical Turkish literature, poets greatly benefited from tropes while creating imaginary depictions. The figures, which have an important function in the expression of emotions, were preferred over other types of tropes. In poems with high lyricism, the figurative expression has gained importance. Accordingly, poets mostly used figurative expression in ghazals, then in qasidas and masnavis. In this study, the views of the balagha writers in Arabic and Turkish literature on trope were examined chronologically and the framework drawn by the classical balagha on trope was tried to be determined. Based on the theoretical information provided by the balagha, the tropes and figurative expressions used in ghazals, qasidas, and masnavis selected from classical Turkish literature were examined.