Yabancı Dil Olarak Türkçe Öğretenlerin Konuşma Becerisini Ölçme Sürecine Yönelik Uygulamaları
Kocayanak , Dilek
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In teaching Turkish as a foreign language, the widely used evaluation of speaking skill by teachers causes questioning the validity and reliability levels of the subjectively given grades. It is undoubtedly an educational necessity to organize assessment and testing, which has a unique complex and multi-element structure, in the context of basic criteria such as validity, reliability and usability. The Implementation processes for testing the speaking skills of those who teach Turkish as a foreign language if they put their testing competencies on a solid ground, the problem of objectivity in speaking skills may also be solved. In this study, information about the competencies of those who teach Turkish as a foreign language in testing and assessment of speaking skills and their implementation processes were obtained and the current situation was described. In the study, relational scanning model and the questionnaire technique were used. Within the scope of the study: three different questions were prepared for those who teach Turkish as a foreign language: the situations that they pay attention in the process of testing their speaking skills (KSDEH), implemantation for the process of testing speaking skill (OSYU) and the techniques they use in the process of testing speaking skills (ÖSKT). First, the literature on the field was searched, and then an item pool consisting of the prepared items was created. After this process was completed, 8 domain experts were interviewed about the items, the problems they encountered in Turkish teaching as a foreign language, the points they paid attention to, and the methods and techniques used were collected, and this information was materialized and distributed to the 3 scales that were considered to be developed, taking into account the features they tested. Subsequently, the items were revised in terms of their simplicity and comprehensibility and the fact that an items has more than one judgment and opinion expression, For the content validity of the items, expert opinion was consulted, and each scale was examined by 2 academicians who are experts in assessment and evaluation, and 8 domain experts experienced in teaching Turkish to foreigners. Personal information form for the proper collection of data after necessary permissions are obtained; KSDEH, ÖSYU and ÖSKT scales have been uploaded to the website. Those who teach Turkish as a foreign language in the sample group were reached via e-mail and were asked to fill in the questionnaire. Volunteers among the teachers participated in the study. The data collection process through the system took approximately 3 months in the 2020-2021 academic year. IP addresses and time stamps of the participants who filled the form were taken from the system in order to verify the accuracy of the data and to detect repeated filling. The working group of the research consists of 218 teachers working in 29 different institutions and organizations in Turkey and abroad in Yunus Emre Institute centers on teaching Turkish to foreigners. The frequency and percentage values of the questions in the questionnaire, as well as the average and standard values, were given in a table, and also the frequency table of each item in the questionnaire was prepared, and the frequency values were presented in the form of a bar graph. The quantitative data collected from the teachers were analyzed using the SPSS program. In this study, it was also investigated whether variables such as gender, age, working time, the faculty of graduation, educational status, taking assessment lessons and getting training on how to test speaking skills are effective in assessing teachers' speaking skills. As a result of the study, it was revealed that teachers prepared questions according to CEFR achievement in the process of measuring speaking skills, and preferred the use of scales because they were able to give valid grades and increase objectivity and reliability. However, while testing the speaking skill of teachers, it was determined that students' success and failure in other skills were taken into account, in short, other grades from reading, listening and writing skills were found to be a criterion that determines whether the student has a passing grade in the speaking exam. In addition, it has been concluded that there is a difference in the rates of teachers considering the basic criteria in the content dimension of the language, and there is a similarity in the rates of considering the criteria in the expression dimension. It has been determined that as the length of service in the profession increases, the rate of using or choosing alternative assessment and evaluation techniques such as Picture-cued Story Telling, converting graphics or tables into sentences, making a speech by the student after listening to an audio or watching a video, etc. decreases. At the same time, it was revealed that teachers preferred to use techniques that measure knowledge directly, considering applicability and reliability criteria, but focused on the least interaction.