Karaçay-Malkarcada “Almak” ve “Vermek” Fiillerinin Anlamsal Alanları
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This study deals with the semantic fields of the verbs “aлыргъа” (to take) and “берирге” (to give) in Karachay-Balkar. The main concepts expressed by these verbs, which are relational antonyms, are very old. The semantic fields of these concepts are described and kinds of connotations they have are given with examples in terms of semantic relations. Related verbs used in Karachay-Balkar were also examined in terms of code copying theory. İn study verbs are considered as a semantic category. In order to create the semantic fields of the concepts of giving and taking, was made thematic semantic classification of the predicates. Two types of it were used in our study. The first one is Ch.Fillmore's theory of Frame Semantics. According to him, there are simple scenario-like frameworks for every word to be used in the human mind, and there are all possible semantic roles and participants in it. Frames are presuppositions. The second theory is Functional Syntax by A. Mustayoki. Within the framework of this theory, each predicate is shown from the speaker's point of view with their possible roles. For example, in the semantic structure of "receiving a letter" there is always an Agent who sends the letter, an Experiencer who receives it, and the Affected (letter) incorporated to the predicate. The research of Karachay-Balkarian is needful because its speakers have been in intense language contact with Caucasian and Russian languages since the 13th century. Such a language contact gives an opportunity to follow how the concepts of "take" and "give" have developed in Caucasus region. As a result of our study was shown that the verb "to take" in Karachay-Balkarian is related to the concepts of "wanting", "experiencing an action", "accepting", "starting", "changing", "copying", "ending"; the verb “to give” is connected with concepts such as “influence”, “allow”, “provide”, “publish”, “initiate.” Since the Caucasus War, Karachays and Malkars are in close contact with Russian language. “Алыргъа” and “берирге” verbs were naturally influenced by Russian language as well. L. Johanson's code copying model was used to find out how much these structures were influenced. According to the model, a semantic structure from a socially dominant language (B) to a non-dominant language (A) can copy a semantic structure in general (by taking in all), selectively (by copying one or more features of the structure), or mixed way. According to this model, 37% of the structures in the semantic fields of "to take" and "to give" in Karachay-Balkar emerged as a result of interaction with Russian. In the study, Functional Syntax, Frame Semantics and Lars Johanson's code copying model were applied for the first time on Karachay-Balkarian, the semantic areas of "give and take" were revealed and examined, and the degree of influence of the related verbs from Russian was determined as a result of language contact.
KünyeKrainiuchenko, Anastasiiia (2021), Karaçay-Malkarcada “Almak” Ve “Vermek” Fiillerinin Anlamsal Alanları (Yüksek Lisans Tezi), Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü
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