Osmanlı İmparatorluğu'nda Turizm (1850-1923)
Forlar Yazıcı, Özgün
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In the 19th century, many changes and developments were experienced in technology, industry, military and administrative fields in the world. This century has also been the starting point of modern tourism activities in its current sense. In addition to these changes and developments, the Ottoman Empire followed Europe behind in tourism activities. The Ottoman Empire opened an exhibition called "Sergi-i Umumi-i Osmani" in Istanbul in 1863, 12 years after the first exhibition opened in 1851 in Europe. Europe showed great interest in this exhibition, they came to Istanbul in groups to visit the exhibition. These groups are the first tourist convoys to come to the Ottoman Empire collectively. Starting from the second half of the 19th century, the Ottoman lands began to attract the attention of tourists. Especially with the increase in transportation opportunities, more tourists started to come to the Ottoman Empire. Orient Express, which made its first voyage in 1883, connected Europe and Istanbul. The railways serving all over the Ottoman Empire facilitated travel and stimulated tourism considerably. Hotels and guesthouses started to be built in various historical regions of Istanbul, especially in Beyoğlu, in other touristic regions of the Ottoman Empire for the accommodation of incoming tourists. As a result of the developments experienced, the port cities of the empire, especially Istanbul, and the holy cities such as Jerusalem attracted tourists from all over the world. In this thesis, between the second half of the 19th century and 1923, the tourism activities, transportation opportunities, hotels and guesthouses opened in this process and the regulations made by the Ottoman government are examined.