Klasik Türk Edebiyatında Realist Aşk Mesnevileri
Çelik Önal, Pınar
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Masnavis in classical Turkish literature are mostly classified according to their subjects. While love masnavis are included as a separate title in the classifications, sergüzeşt-nâme and hasbihâl are evaluated under the title of masnavis that “describe the events they have seen and experienced, and give sections from the social life”. However, there are also masnavis that share common features with both classical love masnavis and sergüzeşt and hasbihâl types. In this study,it is proposed to define masnavis that include features of both types as “realist love masnavis.” Their criteria were determined as plot, people, time and place on the basis of “realism”. The events in these masnavis are realistically fictionalized, the heroes do not show extraordinary features, the events take place at a certain date and in real time periods, in real cities and places. In this study, eight mesnevis are analyzed as examples of literary works that narrate the poet’s love story in the realist mode. Fürkat-nâme and Heves-nâme are the “first” works from the 15th century that show the characteristics of this type. Nâlân u Handân, Şâh u Gedâ, Ebkâr-ı Efkâr and Mâcerâ-yı Mâh are also examples of works written in the 16th century. Heft-hân is a work from the 17th century in which the poet identified with the narrator and stated that he took Yahyâ, the poet of Şâh u Gedâ, as an example. Finally, Üç Arus and Üç Dâmât is an example of a work from the 18th century, in which the poet does not claim originality or does not identify himself with the lover as in other masnavis but shows “realist” features in terms of plot, people, time and space. In this dissertation, firstly, the “reasons of writing” sections of the masnavis are examined, and the reasons for the poets to write their works are questioned. At the end of each chapter, it is observed that the poets’ claims to describe a love adventure that they have experienced is a fiction in order to be “realistic”. This result supports the argument that masnavis should be considered as a sub-title of love masnavis. Then, the masnavis were examined in all aspects, firstly in terms of narrative structure and then in terms of social life, by highlighting their realistic features. In these works, in which the poets return to their own world and tell their own stories, the social lives of the heroes are reflected in a lively and realistic way.