Yabancı Dil Olarak Türkçenin Çevrim İçi Öğretiminde Öğretici Yeterlikleri
Özgat Tatan, Oya
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The distance education which many applications, programs and websites are used has started due to the COVID-19 epidemic with the interruption of education and the closure of educational institutions. In this context, more than the instructional competencies required by face-to-face education are needed in online distance learning. Keeping up with the developing world and following the developments in information technology closely are important in terms of catching and adapting innovations in education. There have not been enough studies examining the competencies of instructors teaching Turkish as a foreign language in online distance education. The sample of the research consists of instructors working in institutions that teach Turkish as a foreign language within universities in Turkey. In this context, the aim of the research is to determine the competencies of the instructors who teach Turkish as a foreign language via online distance education platforms and to associate these competencies with personal information. In this context mixed method and case study were used. A survey consisting of “Personal Information”, “Online Instructor Competencies Scale” and “Opinions and Suggestions” was prepared by examining the studies in the literature. The analysis results of the data collected with the personal information and online instructor competencies scale were analyzed by using the SPSS 22.0 program. Sample t-test independent of parametric tests was used to determine the relationship between the groups of gender, courses, seminars, in-service training for distance education and teaching experience of distance education in online instructor competency scale of the participants. In order to determine the relationship between the groups of age and teaching experience variables, comparisons were made by analyzing with the ANOVA test, one of the parametric tests. Frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation values were used in the descriptive evaluation of the online instructor competencies scale according to the instructional competencies. The research sample consists of 77 participants from 44 universities. Considering the personal information in the questionnaire, the number of female participants in terms of gender is higher than the number of male participants. Participants are between the ages of 31-35 at most and their experience period is 0-6 years. In addition, the participants who receive courses, seminars, in-service training, etc. related to online distance education are comparatively higher than those who do not receive them. Participants mainly have 2 years or less teaching experience in online distance education. Among the information technology tools, laptop is the most preferred by the participants. Considering the averages obtained from the online instructor competencies scale, the participants' professional responsibility and digital resources sub-dimensions are very high. It was observed that the sub-dimensions of teaching and learning, assessment, empowering learners and providing learners' digital competence were at high levels. It has been observed that there is no significant difference in the competencies and general competencies of the participants in professional responsibility, digital resources, teaching and learning, evaluation, empowering learners and providing learners' digital proficiency, depending on the variables of gender, age, teaching experience and distance education teaching experience of the instructors, and the average scores are close to each other. However, there is a significant difference according to the variable of the participants' online distance education course, seminar, in-service training status. Among the online distance education platforms, the instructors mainly use the Zoom program, as well as distance education platforms consisting of 38 different applications, websites and programs. In addition to having face-to-face education competencies, instructors are expected to have competencies brought by online distance education. Among these competencies, teachers can be listed as having professional responsibility, mastering digital resources, teaching and learning, managing the measurement and evaluation process, empowering learners and providing learners' digital competencies. In the study, as a result of determining the competencies of the instructors who teach Turkish as a foreign language via online distance education platforms, it is expected that the instructors will contribute to their professional development and the quality and efficiency of online distance education will increase.