16. ve 17. Yüzyıllarda Avrupa’da Osmanlı ve Safevi Halıları: Etkileşim ve Rekabet
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The main subject of this study titled “Ottoman and Safavid Carpets in Europe in the 16th and 17th Centuries: Interaction and Competition” is the assessment based on the competition and interaction in Europe regarding the Ottoman Anatolian carpets and the Safavid Persian carpets by evaluating the examples provided in accessible archive registers and the paintings that depict carpets, and interpreting the results obtained in comparison with the historical processes of the related European cultures. In the same scope, this study also examines the impacts of this interaction in various European cultures such as Spain, Portugal and the Netherlands on the creation and/or the enhancement of their own carpet and flat weaving traditions. The fact that Europe has had a significant interest in oriental carpets from the early periods is well known. Throughout this process, which we can trace continuously since the 13th century with respect to the carpets belonging to Anatolian-Turkish culture, it is observed that the demand for these carpets has increased even more in Europe that started to form a wealthy class as a result of geographical discoveries and intensified commercial activities. Particularly from the 15th century on, Ottoman carpets were being used as a sign of wealth by nobles and merchants throughout Europe as tablecloths or curtains, as a covering for furniture such as sofas and chairs, as diplomatic gifts between delegations, on cold church seats and under coffins in funeral ceremonies. The recognition of Persian carpets within Europe can only be traced back to 16th century, with the emergence of the Safavid State on the stage of history. Safavid-Iranian carpet weaving, which intensified during the reign of Shah Tahmasb I, began to spread prominently in Europe, notably during the reign of Shah Abbas I and became a significant rival to the market-dominant Ottoman carpets.