Alıç ve Enginar Ekstraktının Heterosiklik Aromatik Aminlerin Oluşumu Üzerine Etkisi
Tengilimoğlu Metin, Mercan Merve
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Tengilimoglu Metin, M.M., The Effect of Hawthorn and Artichoke Extract on the Formation of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines, Hacettepe University Institute of Health Sciences PhD. Thesis in Nutrition and Dietetics, Ankara, 2017. Human epidemiologic and experimental studies have shown that diet plays an important role in cancer development and it has been reported that one third of human cancers are related to diet. Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) are mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds formed from cooking of proteinaceous foods such as meat and fish at temperatures over 150°C and play an important role in the etiology of human cancers. A limit has not been determined for the presence of HCAs in cooked foods, but the authorities of this issue recommended minimizing their formation. In the mechanism of HCAs formation, it is claimed that antioxidants reduce the formation of HCAs by scavenging free radicals. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of the hawthorn and artichoke extract on the formation of HCAs in beef, chicken and beef meatballs cooked by pan cooking and roasting. In present study, the effect of hawthorn and artichoke extracts added at different concentration (0%, 0.5%, 1%) in chicken breast, beef and meatballs cooked at three different cooking temperature (150°C, 200°C and 250°C) by pan frying without oil and baking on mitigation of HCAs formation were investigated. All cooked samples were analyzed for 12 HCAs (IQx, IQ, MeIQx, MeIQ, 4,8-DiMeIQx, 7,8-DiMeIQx, Norharman, Harman, Trp-P-2, PhIP, AαC, MeAαC) and varing levels of IQx (up to 16.17 ng/g), IQ, (up to 4.47 ng/g), MeIQx (up to 2.20 ng/g), MeIQ (up to 12.05 ng/g), 7,8-DiMeIQx (up to 0.32 ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (up to 3.01 ng/g), Norharman (up to 4.36 ng/g), Harman (up to 14.48 ng/g), Trp-P-2 (up to 37.8 ng/g), PhIP (up to 7.59 ng/g), AαC (up to 8.48 ng/g), MeAαC (up to 0.48ng/g) were determined. Total HCA contents of the samples ranged between nd and 83.6 ng/g, nd-49.26 ng/g and nd-17.18 ng/g in chicken breast, beef and meatballs, respectively. The inhibitory effect of hawthorn extract on total HCA level at concentration 0.5% and 1% were found respectively, %12-100 and %19-98 in chicken breast; %42-100 and %20-36 in beef; %8-31 and %53-74 in meatball samples. On the other hand, the inhibitory effect of artichoke extract on total HCA level at concentration 0.5% and 1% were observed respectively as %5-97 and %14-95 in chicken breast, %6-29 and %25-98 in beef, %2-23 and %17-83 in meatball samples. This study shows that hawthorn and artichoke extracts at 0.5% and 1% concentrations mitigate HCAs formation especially in high cooking temperature.