Azerbaycan Gence Kazak Bölgesi Ballarının Mikroskobik, HPLC ve GC-MS Analizleri ile İçeriklerinin Belirlenmesi
Çobanoğlu, Duygu Nur
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In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the quality and botanical sources of Azerbaijan Ganja Gazakh Region’s honeys by melitopalynological, physicochemical and organoleptic analyzes. For this purpose, 23 honey samples were collected from 8 different administrative regions (rayon) of Azerbaijan Ganja Gazakh Economic Region during the honey harvest period in 2014. The pollen contents, total number of pollen (TPN-10) and starch content of 10 g honey were examined by melitopalynological analyses. As a result of the analysis, 34 different plant families, 42 plant genera and 4 species were determined and it was determined that 7 honey were monofloral and 16 honey were multifloral. iv The mean values of the amount of ash is 0,13 ± 0,1 g / 100 gr, the electrical conductivity is 0,37 ± 0,18 mS / cm, the humidity is 16 ± 1,01%, the pH is 3,50 ± 0,22, the free acidity is 18,68 ± 5, 41 meq / kg and total acidity is 31,74 ± 11,44 meq / kg. The sugar content of honeys was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an average glucose of 33,26 ± 4,43 g / 100 g and an average fructose of 40,24 ± 2,85 g / 100 g. The mean sucrose was 1.35 ± 0, 98 g / 100 g. Aluminum (Al), Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), Vanadium (V) element analyzes of honey samples were performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The average values of the minerals are Al 2.49 - As 4,38.- Cd 0,23 - Cu 0,32 - -Fe 3,84 - Mg 21,95.- Mn 0,35 - Ni 7,46 - V 0,57 - Zn 6,56 mg / kg. The total phenolic mean value of honey is 578, 20 GAE / kg and the color index ranges from 0.09 to 0.34 mAU. Residue analyzes were performed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and antibiotic residues such as chloramphenicol, ciprofloxine, difloxacin, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfatiazole and tetracycline were found in ppb and ppm levels. Methanol ethanol extraction and solid phase microextraction methods were used to determine volatile content of the honeys. Two separate readings were taken with methanol ethanol extrection method at intervals of 6 months. Sensory analyzes of honey samples were made with organoleptic analyzes and 17% of the samples were evaluated as good quality. It was determined that 30% of the honeys were monofloral, 70% were multifloral and 87% of them were appropriate to the current quality criteria. As, Cd, V elements were detected in honey samples and antibiotic residues were found in 87% of the honey samples. As a result of the analyzes performed with GC-MS at 6-month intervals, the decrease in the amount of the substance was determined as 14%. At the same time, methanol ethanol extraction with solid phase microextraction (SPME) was compared with. 18.8% more substances in methanol ethanol extraction than SPME.