Evaluation of Hazardous Waste Management System in Turkey
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In this thesis, it is determined that most of the hazardous waste was generated during metal manufacturing in Turkey. The amount of hazardous waste of Turkey was predicted by using population, gross domestic product, industrial production, municipal waste production and the number of people who takes tertiary education. As a result, it was determined that although the relationship between population and hazardous waste production is not vey strong, there is a relation between GDP and hazardous waste amount according to the data sets of Turkey. Moreover, it was found that the industrial production and municipal waste slightly affect hazardous waste production but there is a relation between the number of tertiary educated people and hazardous waste amount. These selected factors were examined with respect to total data sets of ten European countries and it was found that all factors are effective, except the number of people who takes tertiary education. Hazardous waste removal facilities in Turkey were searched and so, it was determined that there were 201 hazardous waste recycling facilities, 36 hazardous waste incineration and co-incineration facilities and 8 hazardous waste landfills in 2015. Moreover, the number of these facilities was analyzed in accordance with province and it was determined that most of hazardous waste removal facilities are in big cities where industry developed but there are not any facilities in some small cities although hazardous waste is produced in these. Namely, it was understood that from west to east the number of hazardous waste facilities decrease. In addition to these, it was found that most of the license is about hazardous waste recycling (29 %) in 2015. Furthermore, it was understood that the development indexes of provinces may affect the number of hazardous waste recycling facilities and the total number of hazardous waste removal facilities. Hazardous waste management problems were examined and it was determined that the most important problem in Turkey is unknowing the exact hazardous waste inventory. As a result of this, hazardous waste inventory was tried to calculate in order to evaluate current hazardous waste management system and so, a method were created by using the data of ten European countries about population, gross domestic product, industrial production, municipal waste and the number of tertiary educated people. After all, it was found that 8,345,939 ton should have been produced in addition to known hazardous waste amount from 2009 to 2015. Besides, when removal cost of this amount was calculated it was determined 2,169,944,140 TL to bury, minimum 4,172,969,500 TL and maximum 25,037,817,000 TL to incinerate, and lastly, 1,226,853,033 Dollars to recycle should be spent. It was found that if this amount which was calculated as 8,345,939 ton is buried, environmental cost of this amount will be 219,915,493 Euros but if this amount is incinerated, environmental cost of this amount will be 383,495,897 Euros. Apart from these, investment cost for landfill and incineration plants were examined and it was determined that investment cost for landfill construction is approximately 7.5 million Euros and investment cost for incineration construction is between 316-373 million TL. Consequently, it is determined that existing hazardous waste management system in Turkey has some deficiencies and so, it needs to be further developed from this thesis.