Türkiye'nin Hayvansal Gübre Kaynaklı Sera Gazı Emisyonları Durumu ve Biyogaz Enerjisi Potansiyeli
Ersoy, Ali Erdinç
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GHGs are one of the main reasons for the climate change our universe that is currently facing. Animal husbandry is an important source of GHGs emission. Essential GHGs emissions such as Methane and Nitrous oxide are released to the atmosphere due to livestock activities. Turkey holds great potential regarding animal population in the world. According to FAO data, Turkey was ranked 23rd with regard to the population at cattles worldwide in 2014. However, since proper livestock modeling has not yet been implemented in Turkey, it appears that GHGs emissions continue to increase. Calculations based on the IPCC 2006 Guidelines demostrate that 15.30 thousand tonnes of Nitrous oxide and 1.38 million tonnes of Methane were released in the year of 2015 due to livestock activities in Turkey. Having a high number of animal population and proper climate conditions, the Turkish city of Konya constitutes the leader in GHGs emissions derived from livestock activities. Nitrous oxide emissions can be decreased through proper animal modeling methods such as suitable manure storage places and short storage periods. Methane, on the other hand, can be converted into biogas energy with right investments. Biomass energy represents another renewable energy sources. Biogas is the gas state of biomass, which is 55-70% of methane, 25-45% of carbon dioxide and trace of hydrogen, hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, nitrogen and oxygen and water vapour and which carries a great potential for electricity and heat generation. Biogas can be obtained through various kinds of sources that contain organic matter. Primary sources include municipal landfill areas, wastewater treatment plants, agricultural residues, animal manure, food industries, etc. Turkey holds a vast potential regarding each type of waste that can be used in obtaining biogas. As livestock is the most important livelihood in Turkey, it is no surprise that animal manure has a significant biogas potential. This study has calculated the biogas potential of Turkey by using two different scenarios, based on manure amounts obtained from farm animal offering easy collectability such as bovines, ovines, poultries and equidae. The first scenario based on 100% manure collectability. According to the first scenario based on 100% manure collectability results, Turkey has about 8.41 billion m3 per year of theoretical biogas potential. The second scenario, based on the different rates of manure collectible of each animal type, shows that Turkey has about 4.18 billion m3 per year of feasible biogas potential. These values correspond to, 4% and 2% respectively of Turkey’s total annual per capita electricity needs and 4.6% and 2.3% respectively of Turkey’s total electricity consumption through electricity distribution companies in 2015.