Sigara Kullanan Ve Kullanmayan Genç Yetişkin Erkeklerde Olumsuz Duygu Durumun Dikkat Yanlılığına Etkileri
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KALINKILIÇ, Emel. Effects of Negative Mood on Attentional Bias in Smoker and Non-Smoker Young Adult Men, Master Thesis, Ankara, 2017. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of experimentally created negative emotion on cigarette smokers’ craving and attentional bias to the smoking related visual stimuli using Visual Dot Probe Task (VDPT). In accordance with this purpose, 80 young adult male participants in 18-30 age range were exposed to experimentally generated negative and neutral mood conditions and then subjected to the VDPT. The experiment was carried out in three stages. In the first stage, participants' emotional state before the mood induction manipulation was determined via Mood-State Adjective Pairs List (MSAPL) and pre-test measurement was taken for comparison with the post-test measurements after the manipulation. Then, the mood induction manipulation was applied. While the negative emotional manipulation was presented to the participants in the experimental group, any mood induction was not performed in participants in the control group. After the presentation of the stimuli, to measure whether or not there was a change in smoking willingness the Smoking Craving Scale (SCS) was applied to smokers and dependence levels were also measured by the Fagerström Nicotine Dependence Test (FNDT) on them. Next, the MSAPL was reapplied and the final measurement for manipulation, post-test, was created. In the second phase of the experiment, all participants were subjected to the VDPT. During the third and the final phase of the experiment, positive mood manipulation was applied only to the participants exposed to the negative mood condition. Measurements for the correct responses and reaction times related to the correct responses were analyzed by 2 (Group: Smoker, Nonsmoker) x 2 (Mood State: Negative, Neutral) x 2 (Spatial Position: Right, Left) x 2 (Relationship: Smoking-related, Nonrelated) mixed ANOVA with repeated measures on the last two factors. Results indicate that, the smokers react more accurately and quickly to smoking related pictures. Thus, the smokers are more likely to process cigarette-related stimuli faster and showed a attentional bias to them. According to the SCS findings, there is an increase in the desire for smoking after exposing to the cigarette-related stimuli; according to the findings of the MSAPL, the applied negative mood manipulation has been shown to work. According to the findings of the VDPT, the smoking group, both in the neutral and in the negative mood conditions, give more faster responses to the dot mark following the cigarette-related stimuli and the desire for smoking in this group is increasing. All these findings indicate that the exposure to the cigarette-related stimulants is more effective on the smoking desire than the negative mood.