Ortaöğretim Kurumlarının Diğer Örgütlerle Ortakyaşar İlişkileri
Özcan, Elif Gamze
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In this study, it is discussed that the concept symbiosis which is defined as the interactions between two different biological species in biology discipline, can be used as a tool to understand the relationships between formal organizations which are social subsystems. When we analyze the organizations biologically, we can see that these formal human communities are complex systems which process complex and organic inputs. As organizations have this liveliness features, in this thesis study, inter-organizational symbiosis is discussed, in terms of organization structure, organizational intelligence, co-evolution and mutual adaptations of organizations. This doctoral thesis focuses on the schools which have great social importance among formal organizations. The way these schools and the organizations they interact with are affected by this symbiosis has dynamism and complexity and it is very important in all aspects. When the benefit and harm situation of schools and other external partners which they have symbiotic relationships is determined, especially the connections which include legal obligations may be criticized. Symbiotic relationship with an organization can create both benefit and harm for the school, which is valid for the other side. With this thesis study, Inter-Organizational Symbiosis Scale has been developed in order to analyze and interpret this complex symbiotic relationship for the schools. The extent of the schools for research was limited to formal secondary schools and after interviewing with the managers of secondary schools, it is determined that with which organizations this level of schools have symbiotic relationship. These 13 organizations were categorized in three groups. state institutions and organizations, commercial partners and social partners. State institutions with which the schools have symbiotic relationship are District Municipality, the Ministry of National Education, District and Provincial Directorate of National Education. Commercial institutions were determined as salary-contracted bank, canteen, nearby markets, nearby package stores and nearby internet cafes. Social partners were determined as Parent-Teacher Association, the businesses to which students are sent for skills education in accordance with the Vocational Education Law no. 3308, nearby schools, nearby neighborhood residents and teachers’ unions. The inventory was developed with the interviews with the managers of pilot schools and the Symbiotic Relationship Scale for Schools was finalized after taking the opinions of thesis advisor. Central districts of Eskisehir are the target population of the study. By year of 2016, this population includes 56 high schools in 7 types. Viewpoints of the managers in all of the schools to symbiosis concept were thought as homogeneous and it was sampled with Simple Random Sampling method by means of total number of managers in the population. As the levels of all types of schools were accepted as identical , this sampling scale was calculated with 95% reliability and ±0.10 error margin and it was determined that at least 63 manager were needed. By the month of March of 2016, scale forming works were started and on June, 2016, which was the end of 2015-2016 education periods, Inter-Organizational Symbiosis Scale (Inorsyms) was finalized. The schools in the population of the study were started to be visited at the end of June, 2016. In this period, extensive social events occurred in Turkey and this caused the number of school managers to decrease. As a result of this, information couldn’t be obtained about the managers of one of the high school types of the study, Imam Hatip High Schools. 52 managers were reached from the other 6 types of high schools. On the basis of the fact that experienced teachers whose period of office is longer than 20 years are active interior partners who know about the school processes and operations, these types of teachers were consulted in order to reach the sampling sub-limit and 15 volunteers among these experienced teachers were asked to fill in research scale. Eventually, a total number of 67 participants were reached and the reliability and validity of the measurements were ensured with the analysis carried out. Data was processed and evaluated in SPSS program using appropriate analysis for nonparametric samples. When the findings obtained from the processing of data coming from both optional and open-ended questions are considered as a whole, the result is that high schools get benefit and harm from the organizations they have symbiosis with. These relationships aren’t generally unilateral and they aren’t simple enough to be discussed within the context of cause and effect relationship. Because it has been understood that some symbiotic relationships stop the schools from making the moves which they use executive activities for and may be for the benefit of the schools. It has been seen that obstacles against the functionality demanded by chaotic period may result from the prevention or inhibition of the other organization. Schools are the factors with which influence the organizations they have symbiotic relationships and these factors prevents the symbiotic relationships though they provide mutual benefit. These factors are the differences in social identities. Although the school is affected negatively by the differences in social identities within or outside itself, it cannot be abstracted from these factors. Schools can be negatively affected by this factor within their symbiosis. The result is the same in their symbiotic relationships with teachers’ unions. Schools can’t participate in the symbiosis which may be for their benefit due to the same reason. District municipality has the same result. In school administrators' view, the benefits that their schools can gain from symbiotic relationships can be generalized as monetary contributions and additives that can increase the efficiency of the staff. In order to prevent the school from being affected negatively from social events which are outside the scope of the school administration but which have an effect on the functioning of the schools, a more flexible and transparent working area should be established especially in budgeting and staff evaluation processes. With regard to the work of the staff, it should be established a working area in which the school can assess according to the standardization of competence, organizational productivity and effectiveness and by which it can carry out staff election or staff change.
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