Utilization of Commercial Adjunct Culture in The Manufacture of Ultrafiltrated White Cheese and its Effects on The Cheese Properties
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In this study, the effect of the commercial adjunct culture of CR-319 containing Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris on the microbiological, chemical, biochemical, textural and sensorial properties of the full-fat ultrafiltrated (UF) white cheese was investigated. UF cheese was manufactured by using normal starter culture (control cheese) or by the addition of adjunct culture of CR-319 in addition to starter culture (experimental cheese). Cheese samples were analysed during 120 days of ripening. It was found that addition of adjunct culture influenced all chemical composition, cheese yield, number of lactic acid bacteria, proteolysis, lipolysis, organic acid and sugar levels, volatile compositions, textural and sensorial characteristics of the cheese within different levels. Biochemical changes were more evident after the 60th day of ripening. Depending on high aminopeptidase activity of CR-319 commercial adjunct culture, secondary proteolysis was found at higher level, especially on the 120th days of ripening. However, primary proteolysis was also affected at experimental cheeses. Those results were supported by urea-PAGE and RP-HPLC. The total free fatty acid level was also affected by adjunct addition. But, its effect was limited (P > 0.05). In experimental cheeses, residual lactose level (~1.54%) was higher than the control cheese while residual galactose level (~0.15%) was lower. It has been found that the adjunct culture containing UF cheese samples had higher level of ketones such as diacetyl, 2,3 pentanedione, acetoin than the control cheeses. Sensorial properties of experimental cheeses were positively affected by adjunct culture and total acceptability was higher than the control cheeses. The use of adjunct culture slightly improved flavour intensity and decreased bitterness. Overall, CR-319 adjunct culture enhanced proteolysis, lipolysis, taste and aroma characteristics which are important for balanced flavour, whilst bitterness was reduced. It leads to partially much more creamy-like texture in UF cheeses. But, those effects were limited until the 60th or the 90th day of ripening.