Pediatrik Astım Hastalarına Bakım Veren Annelerin Psikososyal Özellikleri ile Astım Yönetimi Öz-Yeterlilikleri Arasındaki İlişkilerin İncelenmesi
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This study was carried out with the holistic view of social work based on a biopsychosocial model. Furthermore, mothers who take care of their children with asthma were addressed within the scope of the ecosystem approach, and it was attempted to examine the relations between the variables in this direction. The relationship between the psychosocial features of mothers who provide care to chronic patients in general and pediatric asthma patients, in particular, was not examined in various studies conducted specific to social work in the field of health. In fact, the psychosocial features of mothers who take care of their children with asthma are the key variables that draw the attention of social workers just as in all chronic diseases. This constitutes the starting point of the study. Therefore, the main objective of the study is to explain the asthma management self-efficacy levels of mothers who take care of their children with asthma and to create a model proposal. The methodological orientation of the study is in quantitative weight, and the mixed method that incorporates both the qualitative and quantitative methods was selected in the study. The qualitative stage was completed with 300 caregiver mothers receiving treatment service in a pediatric hospital in the city center of Ankara province, and 20 caregiver mothers in total were interviewed at the qualitative stage. Furthermore, some of the data collection tools in the study are the Revised Form of Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Parent Asthma Management Self-Efficacy Scale, Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale, and Family APGAR Scale. All data were collected between 1 April 2016 and 1 October 2016, and the qualitative data were used in order to support the quantitative data. Furthermore, the quantitative data were processed using SPSS 20 (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences), and the qualitative data were processed at the last stage in the qualitative analysis program MAXQDA 11. The majority of the participants are caregiver mothers in the young adulthood period of their lives, with the middle level of education and middle-low level of income and having two children on average. More than one-third of caregiver mothers and their spouses smoke in common areas with the child suffering from asthma. While caregiver mothers get the most social support from their families and friends, they have the middle degree/level of care burden and family functionality. On the other hand, the asthma management self-efficacy levels of caregiver mothers are not considered to be sufficiently high, despite being above average. There are strong positive relations between family support and Family APGAR, between friend support and Perceived Social Support, between the prevention of attacks and attack management and Parent Asthma Management Self-Efficacy scores. The variable that predicts the parent asthma management in the best way is modeling that incorporates biological and social factors, the second predictor is the care burden, the third one is the state of being satisfied with family functionality, and the final variable is the perceived social support. Such that, the biopsychosocial modeling that is predictive with the definition of the psychosocial factors of care burden, the state of being satisfied with family functionality and perceived social support can explain more than one-third of the parent asthma management self-efficacy level. The results of the study strengthened the assumption that the parent asthma management self-efficacy levels of caregiver mothers are largely related to their biological and psychosocial features. As a result of the study, a postmodern view of the social work profession in the new thousand years was presented with “the Asthma Psychosocial Support Intervention Model Proposal and Application Area Aimed at the Caregiver” using the ecosystem approach based on a biopsychosocial model.