Afganistan Eğitim Sisteminde Nitelik Sorununun Tarihsel, Siyasal, Ekonomik ve Sosyal Temelleri
M.Yahya, Shogofa Rasekh
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In this study, the quality issues which are the most important problems of Afghanistan education system, have been evaluated from historical, political, economic and social perspectives. Historical periods of Afghanistan education system have been explained separately and educational problems have been analyzed from the political, economic and social aspects during these periods. The sources of our research which is a historical screening study, have included history books, historical writings, periodical magazines and newspapers related to education, media records, articles, publications and records of Afghanistan Ministry of Education and education history in Afghanistan. In this study; It has been understood that historical events, external and internal wars, devolutions and rapid government changes have profoundly affected the quality and quantity of education and have prevented the rapid development of education by establishing new layouts from scratch instead of advancing on the previous educational orders. Within a century, different governments have not been able to arrange and implement a comprehensive education strategy within the framework of education policy. Some of these states went into the process of putting their own ideologies and education into politics instead of a certain national strategy, some went to rush and sudden changes by extremism, ignoring social structures of society, others applied discriminatory and imbalanced policies in education, some others have drifted away from the scientific and logical aspects and dragged the educational system with perverse and inaccurate beliefs into obscurantism, disconnection from the world and fundamentalism. It has been observed that; economic factors such as inadequate school buildings, lack of textbooks and other educational equipments, inadequate teacher salaries, poor educational facilities and inability of families to pay for stationery expenses have diminished the quality of the Afghanistan education system. It also has been concluded that; the tribal structure of the societies and the opposite minds to modern education, different and incorrect interpretations of religious beliefs and judgments, the problems of the language of education, the shortcomings and mistakes in the textbooks and lack of the teachers have had an impact on the quality of the education system in Afghanistan. Suggestions such as; a policy of effective use of all internal resources of the country should be implemented for qualitative development of education, with a suitable strategy, more sources should be allocated for education etc. have been developed.