Türk Modernleşmesinde Burjuvazi ve Rekabet Sorunu
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The first study on Turkish modernization is Koçibey Tractate which was dated 1631 and about the deteriorations in the structure of the Ottoman Empire and the measures to be taken against these deteriorations. Throughout 386 years from 1631 up to 2017, the results reached in the studies on Turkish modernization and civilization have been as a mere repetition of each others. Although a long time past over introducing and implementing of these measures, not yet reached the level of contemporary civilization allows us to say either produced measures or their applications have not worked well, in spite of having been some developments in all areas in Turkey. The necessity of putting forward the new perspectives in order to realize the Turkish modernization formed the basis dissertation of this study. In the "Introduction Chapter", philosophical ideas and methods used in the study about “To find the Reality” and “To get the right" were disclosed. What meanings were given in the study to the concepts like “Modernity” and “Civilization” to which different meanings were given by different thinkers was clarified and "General Schema of the Civilizing Process" which includes every form of society was created in Chapter 1. Also in this chapter, the definition of the concept of "People Who Consume Bread Without Producing Wheat (PCBWPW)” was made and the emergence of PCBWPW and the impact of increase in the number and density of these people in the human communities were evaluated. With the benefit of Darwin's book named “The Origin of Species”, the rules of competition in human society were clarified. The answer to the question of “how struggle for survival which has been on the basis of power in the nature can be peaceful in human society”, tried to find by the help of the concept of "Division of Labor" which took place in Durkheim's book named "Division of The Labor In The Society " and the theory of "struggle of opposites" and the theory of "struggle for survival (the race between the likes)" about how to ensure the progress and the development in the production based on industry were examined comparatively. In Chapter 2; the concept of bourgeoisie and its tasks in society were examined with the benefit of Weber, Sombart and Smith’s studies and defining of the concept and tasks of bourgeoisie in society were made; "Domesticated bourgeoisie" was put forward as a new concept and to the issue of how “Financial flows” from the developing countries to the developed countries has been actualized was brought clarity by putting forth that how to realize the circulation of money and goods between countries, by manipulating the description was made by Marx about the circulation of money and goods in a capitalist country. In Chapter 3; the relationship between the state and the education which are the most important elements of creation of technology with civilization, competition and the bourgeoisie were examined. In Chapter 4; the transition process from the production based on agricultural to the production based on industry with capitalist system were analyzed from the perspective of Western history, by starting from the feudal period and containing the transition of the imperial period. In Chapter 5; the same transition process was examined, by starting from the Ottoman Empire to the present day, mainly including the establishment phase of the Republic of Turkey. In the epilogue of this study, to find the means of the problems in Turkish modernization, the process of formation and development of bourgeoisie and competition in the Turkish History was analyzed by comparing the same process of the ones mainly in the Western Europe History, as a new perspective and what to be done to eliminate of these problems was determined.