Özgürlük Kavramını Yeniden Düşünmek: Kant Ve Arendt'te Etik Ve Politik Bir Sorun Olarak Özgürlük
Çetinkıran Balcı, Elif
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The concept of freedom in the philosophy history has become a matter of concern to almost all philosophers. Freedom is now confronted as one of the most debated issues both in the personal and social arena. When we look back the history, we find the freedom as a concept always reflecting the long awaited, for which has been fought and human life ended. One of the main reasons of giving so much importance to freedom is that freedom being the essence of being human, that man can be human with freedom. In other words, a person who does not have the freedom that appears as a distinctive feature of the human kind has lost something from his humanity. We see that philosophers cannot agree on the answers to the question "what is freedom?" despite the fact that the importance of freedom and it being a matter for centuries being debated. Philosophers deduce different things from freedom, and the concept of freedom is filled in different forms at different times and conditions. Although there are too many things to learn through different perspectives of freedom that brought by the philosophers we undoubtedly witness that sometimes freedom is used in other contexts, which are not that related to the freedom, apart from its true meaning. Confusion of the concept of freedom with other concepts and not making conceptual distinctions are the major reason for this. As a result, the concept of freedom is used aside from its true meaning, and loses its core meaning by being assigned different meanings by different people and groups. In this study we will consider the views of two philosophers, who have laid freedom on the foundation of their philosophical systems and approached freedom from different angles. Kant’s and Arendt’s understanding of freedom will be evaluated in the first and second chapters of the thesis, respectively. These two philosophers’ different angles however accurate approach to the freedom constitutes our main reason for choosing them in our study. As a result of these two different perspectives, which one is ethical and the other political, we expect to be able to reveal the right approach to the concept of freedom, and the nature and essence of this concept, which is an indispensable part of human life.