Utilization Of Camel Chymosin In The Production Of Reduced Fat Ultrafiltrated White Cheese And Its Effect On Cheese Quality
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In this study, utilization of camel chymosin in the production of reduced fat ultrafiltrated (UF) white cheese and its effects on the cheese quality was investigated during the ripening period. Animal-calf rennet, fermentation-produced calf chymosin, fermentation-produced camel chymosin and microbial coagulant from Rhizomucor miehei were used in the production of reduced-fat UF white cheeses. The cheese samples were stored at 6-8 ºC, and chemical, biochemical, textural and sensory properties were analysed at 7., 30., 60.,90., and 120 days of ripening. The composition and pH between the cheeses were almost similar. The results indicated that the higher cheese yield was obtained with microbial coagulant, but it was statistically insignificant. The primary and secondary proteolysis were the lowest in cheeses made with camel chymosin. However, lower proteolysis was also observed in cheeses made with microbial coagulant than other cheeses during ripening (P<0.05). Those results were supported by urea-PAGE and HPLC analysis. In addition, utilization of camel chymosin had a considerable impact on the textural profile of cheeses (P<0.05). It was found that hardness was higher than other cheeses. But, this affected sensorial scores as to be body and texture negatively. The sensory analysis also indicated that utilization of camel chymosin and microbial coagulant had a positive effect on total acceptability in UF cheeses without causing bitterness. However, the bitterness was determined in other cheeses.