Aristoteles ve Kant Etiğinde Erdem Kavramı
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In this study, the concept of virtue, which has a significant place in philosophy and especially in the field of ethics for playing a vital role in human life in order to live in a good and right way, is dealt with in the context of Aristotelian and Kantian ethics. Thus, the opinions of Aristotle and Kant, who aim to offer universally valid information in the field of ethics studying human being and her/his actions, on virtue is examined in comparison to identify the differences and similarities. By this way, throughout the entire study, these two well-known philosophers’s conceptions of virtue is thoroughly analyzed and so is shown the significance and place of the notion of virtue. In accordance with this purpose, the first chapter of this thesis clarifies the concepts of (the highest) good, happiness and virtue, which are basic determinants of Aristotelian ethics, and deals with Aristotle’s views on virtue and virtues. The second chapter, first, explains the relationship between virtue and “moral law” to show how the concept of virtue is defined and positioned in Kantian ethics and later discusses virtue’s connection with the concepts of good and happiness. As per this perspective, the third chapter explains Kant’s “system of the doctrine of virtue” and thus shows the importance of duties of virtue in both this system and human life. The fourth chapter discusses the similarities and differences between Aristotle’s and Kant’s conceptions of virtue in comparison and then, analyzes Kant’s critique of Aristotle’s “doctrine of the mean” with a critical approach. In conclusion, although it generally seems that the concept of virtue is not in the forefront of Kantian ethics, it can be asserted that it has indispensible significance in Kantian ethics as in the case of Aristotelian ethics.