Show simple item record

dc.contributor.advisorGüçiz Doğan, Bahar
dc.contributor.authorAbdianwall, Mohammad Haris
dc.date.accessioned2018-02-16T07:50:53Z
dc.date.available2018-02-16T07:50:53Z
dc.date.issued2018
dc.date.submitted2018-01-19
dc.identifier.citation1. World Health Organization. GLOBAL DATA ON VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS 2010. 2010. [Available from: http://www.who.int/blindness/GLOBALDATAFINALforweb.pdf?ua=1. Access date: 01.02. 2015. 2. World Health Organization. Blindness: Vision 2020 - The Global Initiative for the Elimination of Avoidable Blindness. Action plan 2006-2011. 2015. [Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs213/en/. Access date; 01.02.2015. 3. Resnikoff S, Pascolini D, Etya’ale D, Kocur I, Pararajasegaram R, Pokharel G P, et al. Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2004.;82 (11):844-52. 4. World Health Organization. Consultation on Public Health Managment of Chronic Eye Disease Geneva2011 [Available from: http://www.who.int/blindness/publications/CONSULTATION_ON_CHRONIC_EYE_DISEASES.pdf. Access date: 21.02.2015. 5. Thylefors B. A simplified methodology for the assessment of blindness and its main causes. World Health Stat Q. 1987;40(2):129-41. 6. West S, Sommer A. Prevention of blindness and priorities for the future. Bulletin of the World Health Organization,.79 (3):244–8. 7. Pascolini D, Mariotti SP. Global estimates of visual impairment: 2010. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012;96(5):614-8. 8. Vaghan D, Asbury T. Vaghan and Asbury's General Ophthalmology. Eighteenth ed. United State of America: McGrawl-Hill Companies, Inc.; 2011. 383-95 p. 9. Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Public Health. A Basic Package of Health Services for Afghanistan – 2010 [Available from: http://saluteinternazionale.info/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Basic_Pack_Afghan_2010.pdf. Access date: 10.02.2015. 10. Bye L, Modi N, Stanford M. Basic Sciences for Ophthalmology First ed. Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom Oxford University Press; 2013. 11. Khurana A K. Comprehensive Ophthalmology. Fourth ed. 4835/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd.; 2007. 443-58 p. 12. Crick RP, Khaw PT. A Practical Guide to Disorders of the Eyes and Their Management. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Company; 2003. 13. James B, Bron A. Ophthalmology Lecture Notes. 11 ed. UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011 November 7, 2011. 14. WHO. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. 2012. [Available from: https://www.cihi.ca/en/icd_volume_one_2012_en.pdf. Access date: 11.10.2016. 15. John J Michon, Joseph Lau, Wing Shing Chan, Leon B Ellwein. Prevalence of visual impairment, blindness, and cataract surgery in the Hong Kong elderly. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002;86:133-9. 16. Nirmalan P K , Thulasiraj R D, Maneksha V, Rahmathullah R, Ramakrishnan R, Padmavathi A, et al. A population based eye survey of older adults in Tirunelveli district of south India: blindness, cataract surgery, and visual outcomes. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002;86:505-12. 17. Salomao SR, Cinoto RW, Berezovsky A, Araujo-Filho A, Mitsuhiro MR, Mendieta L, et al. Prevalence and causes of vision impairment and blindness in older adults in Brazil: the Sao Paulo Eye Study. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2008;15(3):167-75. 18. Salomao SR, Mitsuhiro MR, Belfort Jr R. Visual impairment and blindness: an overview of prevalence and causes in Brazil. An Acad Bras Cienc. 2009;81(3):539-49. 19. Dineen B P, Bourne R R A, Ali S M, Noorul Huq D M , Johnson G J. Prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in Bangladeshi adults: results of the National Blindness and Low Vision Survey of Bangladesh. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003;87:820-8. 20. Thylefors B, Négrel AD, Pararajasegaram R, Dadzie KY. Global data on blindness. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1995;73(1):115-21. 21. Jadoon MZ, Dineen B, Bourne RR, Shah SP, Khan MA, Johnson GJ, et al. Prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in Pakistan: the Pakistan National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47(11):4749-55. 22. Soori H, Ali JM, Nasrin R. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in Tehran Province, Iran. J Pak Med Assoc. 2011;61(6):544-9. 23. Huang S, Zheng Y, Foster PJ, Huang W, He M, Liwan Eye S. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment in Chinese adults in urban southern China. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127(10):1362-7. 24. Mathenge W, Kuper H, Limburg H, Polack S, Onyango O, Nyaga G, et al. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in Nakuru district, Kenya. Ophthalmology. 2007;114(3):599-605. 25. Murthy GVS, Gupta SK, Bachani D, Jose R, John N. Current estimates of blindness in India. The British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2005;89(3):257-60. 26. Bourne RRA, Jonas JB, Flaxman SR, Keeffe J, Leasher J, Naidoo K, et al. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in high-income countries and in Eastern and Central Europe: 1990–2010. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2014;98(5):629-38. 27. World Health organization. Socio economic aspects of blindness and visual impairment: World Health organization; 2017 [Available from: http://www.who.int/blindness/economy/en/. Access date: 15.02.2017. 28. Gordois A, Pezzullo L, Cutler H. The Global Economic Cost of Visual Impairment. Access Economics Pty Limited; 2010. 29. World Health Organization. The global burden of disease: 2004 update World Health Organization,; 2017 [Available from: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/2004_report_update/en/. Access date: 19.02.2017 30. Thylefors B, Negrel AD, Pararajasegaram R, Dadzie KY. Available data on blindness (update 1994). Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 1995;2(1):5-39. 31. Thylefors B, Negrel AD, Pararajasegaram R, Dadzie KY. Global data on blindness. Bull World Health Organ. 1995;73(1):115-21. 32. World Health Assembly. Prevention of avoidable blindness and visual impairment: report by the Secretariat. Geneva; 2009. Contract No.: A62/7. 33. Health IRoAMoP. A Basic Package of Health Services for Afghanistan 2005 [Available from: http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/documents/s21746en/s21746en.pdf. Access date: 02.02.2015. 34. Afghan Public Health Institute MoPHKA, Central Statistics Organization Kabul Afghanistan, ICF Macro Calverton M, USA., Indian Institute of Health Management Research Jaipur India, World Health Organization/EMRO Cairo Egypt. Afghanistan Mortality Survey 2010 2011 [Available from: http://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/fr248/fr248.pdf. Access date:16.02.2015. 35. Central Statistics Organization Independent Directorate of Local Governance and Afghan Geodisy and Cartography Head Office. Afghanistan Statistical Yearbook 2012 - 13 2013 [Available from: https://www.amazon.com/Afghanistan-Statistical-Yearbook-Statistics-Organization/dp/B00Y5YH0OQ. Access date: 15.02.2015. 36. Central Statistics Office Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Public Health. Province of Nangarhar, A Socio-Economic and Demographic Profile Household Listing—2004 2004 [Available from: http://afghanag.ucdavis.edu/country-info/Province-agriculture-profiles/unfr-reports/All-Nangarhar.pdf/view. Access date: 08.02.2015. 37. Afghanistan Central Statics Organization (CSO). Estimated Settled Population by Civil Division, Urban, Rural and Sex 2014 – 2015 [Available from: http://cso.gov.af/en/page/demography-and-socile-statistics/demograph-statistics/3897 Access date: 21.02.2015. 38. Afghanistan Ministry of Public Health (MoPH). List of Active (Public) Health Facilities November 2014 [Available from: http://moph.gov.af/en/documents/category/hmis. Access date: 18.02.2015. 39. Afghanistan Ministry of Public Health (MoPH). Provincial Profile 2012 [Available from: http://moph.gov.af/en/documents/category/hmis. Access date: 18.02.2015. 40. World Health Organization. Methods of Assessment of Avoidable Blindness Geneva: World Health Organization; 1980. Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/41808/1/WHO_OFFSET_54.pdf. Access date: 18.02.1015. 41. Islamic republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Justice. The Constitution of Afghanistan [Available from: http://moj.gov.af/en/page/1684. Access date: 20.04.2015. 42. Shahriari HA, Izadi S, Rouhani MR, Ghasemzadeh F, Maleki AR. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in Sistan-va-Baluchestan Province, Iran: Zahedan Eye Study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91(5):579-84. 43. Li Z, Cui H, Liu P, Zhang L, Yang H, Zhang L. Prevalence and Causes of Blindness and Visual Impairment Among the Elderly in Rural Southern Harbin, China. Ophthalmic Epidemiology. 2008;15(5):334-8. 44. Wu M, Yip JL, Kuper H. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in Kunming, china. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(6):969-74. 45. Zhao J, Ellwein LB, Cui H, Ge J, Guan H, Lv J, et al. Prevalence of Vision Impairment in Older Adults in Rural China: The China Nine-Province Survey. Ophthalmology. 2010;117(3):409-16.e1. 46. Zhu RR, Shi J, Yang M, Guan HJ. Prevalences and causes of vision impairment in elderly Chinese: a socioeconomic perspective of a comparative report nested in Jiangsu Eye Study. Int J Ophthalmol. 2016;9(7):1051-6. 47. Patil S, Gogate P, Vora S, Ainapure S, Hingane RN, Kulkarni AN, et al. Prevalence, causes of blindness, visual impairment and cataract surgical services in Sindhudurg district on the western coastal strip of India. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2014;62(2):240-5. 48. Pakistan Institute of Community Ophthalmology. Global Human Resource Development Assessment for Comprehensive Eye Care | International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness. 2006. 49. Husainzada R. Situation analysis of human resources in eye care in Afghanistan. Community Eye Health. 2007;20(61):12. 50. Factbook CW. Afghanistan Demographics Profile 2016 [Available from: http://www.indexmundi.com/afghanistan/demographics_profile.html. Access date: 22.03.2017. 51. Central Statistics Office Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Population Structure and Changes 2016 [Available from: http://www.cso.gov.af/Content/files/Chapter3%20POPULATION%20STRUCTURE%20AND%20CHANGE.pdf. Access date: 22.03.2017. 52. World Health Organization. WHO EMRO | New assessment highlights gaps in health service provision in Afghanistan | Afghanistan-news | Afghanistan 2017 [Available from: http://www.emro.who.int/afg/afghanistan-news/health-facility-assessment.html . Access date: 22.03.2017. 53. Central Statistics O. Afghanistan living conditions survey (ALCS) - Central Statistics Organization 2011-2012 [Available from: http://cso.gov.af/en/page/1500/1494/nrav-report. Access date: 23.03.2017. 54. Kristina C. 10 Countries With The Worst Literacy Rates In The World | Care2 Causes 2013 [updated 2013/09/08/. Available from: http://www.care2.com/causes/10-countries-with-the-worst-literacy-rates-in-the-world.html. Access date: 23.03.2017. 55. Archivist Online Pakistan. Literacy rate of education of Pakistan 2016. [Internet]2015 2015/02/19/T13:20:09+00:00. Available from: http://www.archivistonline.pk/literacy-rate-in-pakistan/. Access date: 20.02.2017. 56. United Nations Educational S, Cultural O. Iran (Islamic Republic of). UNESCO. 2014. 57. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization. Uzbekistan 2014 [updated 2014/11/04/T13:58:37+00:00. Available from: http://en.unesco.org/countries/uzbekistan. Access date: 23.03.2017. 58. WorldAtlas. 25 Countries With The Highest Literacy Rates. WorldAtlas. 59. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization. China Literacy Rate 2013 [Available from: https://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/china_statistics.html . Access date: 23.03.2017. 60. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Enhancement of Literacy in Afghanistan (ELA) program | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 2017 [updated 2017. Available from: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/kabul/education/enhancement-of-literacy-in-afghanistan-ela-program/. Access date: 23.03.2017. 61. Global Finance Magazine - Afghanistan GDP and Economic Data 2016 [Available from: https://www.gfmag.com/global-data/country-data/afghanistan-gdp-country-report. Access date: 26.03.2017 62. Afghanistan MoEIRo. An analysis based on national risk and vulnerability assessment (NRVA) 2007-08 and 2011-12. The World Bank; 2015 2015/10/01/01:10:04. Report No.: 100638. 63. United States Department of Agriculture. Nangarhar ننگرهار — Afghan Agriculture. 2017. 64. Duke Burbridge H, Mohammad MF, Mohammad SH, E C. Afghanistan in 2015: A Survey of the Afghan People - The Asia Foundation. 2015. 65. United Nations Internation Assisstance Mession. Report on the protection of civilian in armed conflict 2015 [updated 2015/09/09/T11:34:28+00:00. Available from: https://unama.unmissions.org/protection-of-civilians-reports. Access date: 28.03.2017. 66. Roberts JE. Ultraviolet radiation as a risk factor for cataract and macular degeneration. Eye & contact lens. 2011;37(4):246-9. 67. Krogh E, Hansen TN, Wendt S, Elkjaer M. Promoting Employment for Women as a Strategy for Poverty Reduction 2009 [Available from: https://www.oecd.org/dac/povertyreduction/43280489.pdf. Access date: 28.01.2017. 68. Organization IRoACS. Women and Men in Afghanistan 2015 [Available from: http://cso.gov.af/Content/files/%D9%88%D8%B6%D8%B9%DB%8C%D8%AA%20%D8%B2%D9%86%D8%A7%D9%86%20%D9%88%20%D9%85%D8%B1%D8%AF%D8%A7%D9%86.pdf. Access date: 24.04.2017. 69. Organization International Labour Organization. About the ILO in Afghaniatan 2017 [Available from: http://www.ilo.org/asia/countries/afghanistan/lang--en/index.htm. Access date: 24.04.2017. 70. Subramanian SV, Huijts T, Avendano M. Self-reported health assessments in the 2002 World Health Survey: how do they correlate with education? Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2010;88(2):131-8. 71. World Health Organization. Main public health issues and concerns 2017 [Available from: http://www.who.int/hac/donorinfo/afg/en/index1.html. Access date: 27.04.2017. 72. United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Afghanistan is among worst places on globe for women's health, 2002 [Available from: https://www.unicef.org/newsline/02pr59afghanmm.htm. Access date: 06.11.2017. 73. World Health Organization. Women's Health 2017 [Available from: http://www.who.int/topics/womens_health/en/. Access date: 27.04.2017. 74. Vlassoff C. Gender differences in determinants and consequences of health and illness. J Health Popul Nutr. 2007;25(1):47-61. 75. Lu Y, Zhou S, Dreyer RP, Spatz ES, Geda M, Lorenze NP, et al. Sex Differences in Inflammatory Markers and Health Status Among Young Adults With Acute Myocardial Infarction: Results From the VIRGO (Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients) Study. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2017;10(2):e003470. 76. Mommersteeg PM, Arts L, Zijlstra W, Widdershoven JW, Aarnoudse W, Denollet J. Impaired Health Status, Psychological Distress, and Personality in Women and Men With Nonobstructive Coronary Artery Disease: Sex and Gender Differences: The TWIST (Tweesteden Mild Stenosis) Study. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2017;10(2). 77. Nishi A, Kawachi I, Shirai K, Hirai H, Jeong S, Kondo K. Sex/gender and socioeconomic differences in the predictive ability of self-rated health for mortality. PLoS One. 2012;7(1):e30179. 78. Regitz-Zagrosek V. Sex and gender differences in health. Science & Society Series on Sex and Science. EMBO Rep. 2012;13(7):596-603. 79. CountryEconomy.com. Afghanistan - Life expectancy at birth 2015. Available from: https://countryeconomy.com/demography/life-expectancy/afghanistan. Access date: 25.09.2017. 80. Organization WH. Afghanistan 2017. Available from: http://www.who.int/countries/afg/en/. Access date: 25.09.2017. 81. Suhrcke M, Nugent R, Stuckler D, Rocco L. Chronic disease: an economic perspective. 2006. 82. World Health Organization. Noncommunicable diseases country profiles 2014 July 2014. Available from: http://www.who.int/nmh/publications/ncd-profiles-2014/en/. Access date: 03.09.2017. 83. World Health Organization. Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011. Report No.: 924456422X. 84. Naidoo K, Sweeney D, Jaggernath J, Holden B. A population-based study of visual impairment in the Lower Tugela health district in KZN, SA. African Vision and Eye Health. 2013;72(3):110-8. 85. Wang W-L, Chen N, Sheu M-M, Wang J-H, Hsu W-L, Hu Y-J. The prevalence and risk factors of visual impairment among the elderly in Eastern Taiwan. The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences. 2016;32(9):475-81. 86. DiNuzzo AR, Black SA, Lichtenstein MJ, Markides KS. Prevalance of functional blindness, visual impairment, and related functional deficits among elderly Mexican Americans. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2001;56(9):M548-M51. 87. James ER. The etiology of steroid cataract. Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2007;23(5):403-20. 88. Cumming RG, Mitchell P, Leeder SR. Use of Inhaled Corticosteroids and the Risk of Cataracts. New England Journal of Medicine. 1997;337(1):8-14. 89. Jick SS, Vasilakis-Scaramozza C, Maier WC. The Risk of Cataract among Users of Inhaled Steroids. Epidemiology. 2001;12(2):229-34. 90. Tripathi RC, Parapuram SK, Tripathi BJ, Zhong Y, Chalam KV. Corticosteroids and Glaucoma Risk. Drugs & Aging. 1999;15(6):439-50. 91. van Leeuwen R, Tomany SC, Wang JJ, Klein R, Mitchell P, Hofman A, et al. Is medication use associated with the incidence of early age-related maculopathy?: Pooled findings from 3 continents. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(6):1169-75. 92. Hyman L, Schachat AP, He Q, Leske M, for the Age-Related Macular Degeneration Risk Factors Study G. Hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and age-related macular degeneration. Archives of Ophthalmology. 2000;118(3):351-8. 93. Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. Risk factors associated with age-related macular degeneration: A case-control study in the age-related eye disease study: age-related eye disease study report number 3. Ophthalmology. 2000;107(12):2224-32. 94. Klein R, Klein BK, Jensen SC, et al. Medication use and the 5-year incidence of early age-related maculopathy: The beaver dam eye study. Archives of Ophthalmology. 2001;119(9):1354-9. 95. Garbe E, Suissa S, LeLorier J. Association of inhaled corticosteroid use with cataract extraction in elderly patients. JAMA. 1998;280(6):539-43. 96. Klein BEK, Klein R, Lee KE, Danforth LG. Drug use and five-year incidence of age-related cataracts: The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2001;108(9):1670-4. 97. Wang JJ, Rochtchina E, Tan AG, Cumming RG, Leeder SR, Mitchell P. Use of Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids and the Long-term Risk of Cataract. Ophthalmology. 2009;116(4):652-7. 98. Li J, Tripathi RC, Tripathi BJ. Drug-Induced Ocular Disorders. Drug Safety. 2008;31(2):127-41. 99. World Health Organization. Main public health issues and concerns-Afghanistan 2017. Available from: http://www.who.int/hac/donorinfo/afg/en/index1.html. Access date: 20.10.2017. 100. United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA). Afghanistan’s Rising Elderly Population Impacts Social Services 2012. Available from: https://unama.unmissions.org/afghanistan%E2%80%99s-rising-elderly-population-impacts-social-services. Access date: 20.10.2017. 101. Wu J, Lie YL, Rao KQ, Qian JC, Ye RW, Sun Q, et al. Gender differences in education related health inequalities in Chinese northern rural areas: 1993 and 2001. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2003;57(7):506-7. 102. Ross CE, Wu C-l. The Links Between Education and Health. American Sociological Review. 1995;60(5):719-45. 103. Winkleby MA, Jatulis DE, Frank E, Fortmann SP. Socioeconomic status and health: how education, income, and occupation contribute to risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Am J Public Health. 1992;82(6):816-20. 104. Ross CE, Wu C-L. Education, age, and the cumulative advantage in health. Journal of health and social behavior. 1996:104-20. 105. Robert SA. Community-level socioeconomic status effects on adult health. Journal of health and social behavior. 1998:18-37. 106. Thomson KC, Guhn M, Richardson CG, Shoveller JA. Associations between household educational attainment and adolescent positive mental health in Canada. SSM - Population Health. 2017;3(Supplement C):403-10. 107. Cassedy A, Drotar D, Ittenbach R, Hottinger S, Wray J, Wernovsky G, et al. The impact of socio-economic status on health related quality of life for children and adolescents with heart disease. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 2013;11:99-. 108. Smith JP. The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Health over the Life-Course. The Journal of Human Resources. 2007;42(4):739-64. 109. Blumenthal SJ, Kagen J. The effects of socioeconomic status on health in rural and urban america. JAMA. 2002;287(1):109-. 110. Adler NE, Newman K. Socioeconomic disparities in health: pathways and policies. Health affairs (Project Hope). 2002;21(2):60-76. 111. Alvarez-Galvez J, Rodero-Cosano ML, Motrico E, Salinas-Perez JA, Garcia-Alonso C, Salvador-Carulla L. The Impact of Socio-Economic Status on Self-Rated Health: Study of 29 Countries Using European Social Surveys (2002–2008). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013;10(3):747-61. 112. Anderson NB, Armstead CA. Toward understanding the association of socioeconomic status and health: A new challenge for the biopsychosocial approach. Psychosomatic medicine. 1995;57(3):213-25. 113. Duncan GJ, Daly MC, McDonough P, Williams DR. Optimal indicators of socioeconomic status for health research. Am J Public Health. 2002;92(7):1151-7. 114. Mulatu MS, Schooler C. Causal connections between socio-economic status and health: reciprocal effects and mediating mechanisms. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 2002;43(1):22. 115. Shavers VL. Measurement of socioeconomic status in health disparities research. Journal of the national medical association. 2007;99(9):1013. 116. Smith JP. Healthy bodies and thick wallets: the dual relation between health and economic status. The journal of economic perspectives: a journal of the American Economic Association. 1999;13(2):144. 117. Williams DR, Yu Y, Jackson JS, Anderson NB. Racial differences in physical and mental health: Socio-economic status, stress and discrimination. Journal of health psychology. 1997;2(3):335-51. 118. Stronks K, van de Mheen H, van den Bos J, Mackenbach JP. The interrelationship between income, health and employment status. International Journal of Epidemiology. 1997;26(3):592-600. 119. Ferrie JE, Martikainen P, Shipley MJ, Marmot MG, Stansfeld SA, Smith GD. Employment status and health after privatisation in white collar civil servants: prospective cohort study. Bmj. 2001;322(7287):647. 120. Roos E, Lahelma E, Saastamoinen P, Elstad J-I. The association of employment status and family status with health among women and men in four Nordic countries. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. 2005;33(4):250-60. 121. Imanishi Y, Fukuma S, Karaboyas A, Robinson BM, Pisoni RL, Nomura T, et al. Associations of employment status and educational levels with mortality and hospitalization in the dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study in Japan. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(3):e0170731. 122. Brown J, Demou E, Tristram MA, Gilmour H, Sanati KA, Macdonald EB. Employment status and health: understanding the health of the economically inactive population in Scotland. BMC Public Health. 2012;12(1):327. 123. Stronks K, van de Mheen H, van den Bos J, Mackenbach J. The interrelationship between income, health and employment status1997. 592-600 p. 124. Roos E, Lahelma E, Saastamoinen P, Elstad J-I. The association of employment status and family status with health among women and men in four Nordic countries. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine. 2005;33(4):250-60. 125. Repetti RL, Matthews KA, Waldron I. Employment and women's health: Effects of paid employment on women's mental and physical health. American Psychologist. 1989;44(11):1394. 126. Artazcoz L, Benach J, Borrell C, Cortès I. Unemployment and mental health: understanding the interactions among gender, family roles, and social class. Am J Public Health. 2004;94(1):82-8. 127. Dooley D. Unemployment, Underemployment, and Mental Health: Conceptualizing Employment Status as a Continuum. American Journal of Community Psychology. 2003;32(1-2):9-20. 128. Singh K, Kondal D, Shivashankar R, Ali MK, Pradeepa R, Ajay VS, et al. Health-related quality of life variations by sociodemographic factors and chronic conditions in three metropolitan cities of South Asia: the CARRS study. BMJ Open. 2017;7(10). 129. Weeks WB, Kazis LE, Shen Y, Cong Z, Ren XS, Miller D, et al. Differences in Health-Related Quality of Life in Rural and Urban Veterans. Am J Public Health. 2004;94(10):1762-7. 130. Peen J, Schoevers RA, Beekman AT, Dekker J. The current status of urban‐rural differences in psychiatric disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2010;121(2):84-93. 131. Hartley D. Rural health disparities, population health, and rural culture. Am J Public Health. 2004;94(10):1675-8. 132. Verheij RA, Van de Mheen HD, de Bakker DH, Groenewegen PP, Mackenbach JP. Urban-rural variations in health in The Netherlands: does selective migration play a part? Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 1998;52(8):487-93. 133. Comer J, Mueller K. Access to Health Care: Urban‐Rural Comparisons from a Midwestern Agricultural State. The Journal of Rural Health. 1995;11(2):128-36. 134. Ziersch AM, Baum F, Darmawan I, Kavanagh AM, Bentley RJ. Social capital and health in rural and urban communities in South Australia. Australian and New Zealand journal of public health. 2009;33(1):7-16. 135. World Healh Organization. Noncommunicable diseases 2017 [Dec 21, 2017]. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs355/en/. Access dat: 20.12.2017. 136. Khademi N, Babanejad M, Asadmobini A, Karim H. The Association of Age and Gender with Risk Factors of Noncommunicable Diseases among Employees in West of Iran. International Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2017;8:9. 137. Schwandt HM, Coresh J, Hindin MJ. Marital Status, Hypertension, Coronary Heart Disease, Diabetes, and Death Among African American Women and Men: Incidence and Prevalence in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study Participants. Journal of family issues. 2010;31(9):1211-29. 138. Minh HV, Byass P, Huong DL, Chuc NTK, Wall S. Risk Factors for Chronic Disease Among Rural Vietnamese Adults and the Association of These Factors With Sociodemographic Variables: Findings From the WHO STEPS Survey in Rural Vietnam, 2005. Preventing Chronic Disease. 2007;4(2):A22. 139. Ghazali SM, Seman Z, Cheong KC, Hock LK, Manickam M, Kuay LK, et al. Sociodemographic factors associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors among Malaysian adults. BMC Public Health. 2015;15(1):68. 140. Todkar SS, Gujarathi VV, Tapare VS. Period Prevalence and Sociodemographic Factors of Hypertension in Rural Maharashtra: A Cross-Sectional Study. Indian Journal of Community Medicine : Official Publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine. 2009;34(3):183-7. 141. Murthy GVS, Fox S, Sivasubramaniam S, Gilbert CE, Mahdi AM, Imam AU, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for hypertension and association with ethnicity in Nigeria: results from a national survey. Cardiovascular Journal of Africa. 2013;24(9):344-50. 142. Erem C, Hacihasanoglu A, Kocak M, Deger O, Topbas M. Prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension and associated risk factors among Turkish adults: Trabzon Hypertension Study. Journal of Public Health. 2009;31(1):47-58. 143. Safdar NF, Bertone-Johnson ER, Cordeiro L, Jafar TH, Cohen NL. Dietary patterns and their association with hypertension among Pakistani urban adults. Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition. 2015;24(4):710-9. 144. Shafi ST, Shafi T. A survey of hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control in health screening camps of rural central Punjab, Pakistan. Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health. 2017;7(2):135-40. 145. Hashmi SK, Afridi MB, Abbas K, Sajwani RA, Saleheen D, Frossard PM, et al. Factors Associated with Adherence to Anti-Hypertensive Treatment in Pakistan. PLoS ONE. 2007;2(3):e280. 146. Ahmad K, Zwi AB, Tarantola DJM, Chaudhry TA. Self-Perceived Barriers to Eye Care in a Hard-to-Reach Population: The Karachi Marine Fishing Communities Eye and General Health Survey. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 2015;56(2):1023-32. 147. Park YS, Heo H, Ye BJ, Suh Y-W, Kim S-H, Park SH, et al. Prevalence and Factors Associated with the Use of Eye Care Services in South Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012. Korean Journal of Ophthalmology : KJO. 2017;31(1):58-70. 148. McGwin G, Khoury R, Cross J, Owsley C. Vision Impairment and Eye Care Utilization among Americans 50 and Older. Current eye research. 2010;35(6):451-8. 149. Olusanya BA, Ashaye AO, Owoaje ET, Baiyeroju AM, Ajayi BG. Determinants of Utilization of Eye Care Services in a Rural Adult Population of a Developing Country. Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology. 2016;23(1):96-103. 150. World Health organization. Afghanistan Primary Health Care 2017. Available from: http://www.emro.who.int/afg/programmes/primary-health-care-phc.html. Access date: 01.11.2017. 151. World Bank. Afghanistan Builds Capacity to Meet Healthcare Challenges 2015. Available from: http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2015/12/22/afghanistan-builds-capacity-meet-healthcare-challenges. Access date: 01.11.2017. 152. Négrel AD, Thylefors B. The global impact of eye injuries. Ophthalmic Epidemiology. 1998;5(3):143-69. 153. Hashemi H, Khabazkhoob M, Emamian MH, Shariati M, Mohazzab-Torabi S, Fotouhi A. Past History of Ocular Trauma in an Iranian Population-Based Study: Prevalence and its Associated Factors. Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology. 2015;22(3):377-82. 154. Bailey RN, Indian RW, Zhang X, Geiss LS, Duenas MR, Saaddine JB. Visual impairment and eye care among older adults - five States, 2005. MMWR Morbidity and mortality weekly report. 2006;55(49):1321-5. 155. Khatry SK, Lewis AE, Schein OD, Thapa MD, Pradhan EK, Katz J. The epidemiology of ocular trauma in rural Nepal. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2004;88(4):456-60. 156. Kuhn F, Morris R, Witherspoon CD, Mann L. Epidemiology of Blinding Trauma in the United States Eye Injury Registry. Ophthalmic Epidemiology. 2006;13(3):209-16. 157. Vela C, Samson E, Zunzunegui MV, Haddad S, Aubin M-J, Freeman EE. Eye care utilization by older adults in low, middle, and high income countries. BMC Ophthalmology. 2012;12(1):5. 158. D. Ntsoane M, A. Oduntan O. A review of factors influencing the utilization of eye care services2010. 159. Chandrashekhar T, Bhat H, Pai R, Nair S. Coverage, utilization and barriers to cataract surgical services in rural South India: results from a population-based study. Public health. 2007;121(2):130-6. 160. Morales LS, Varma R, Paz SH, Lai MY, Mazhar K, Andersen RM, et al. Self-reported use of eye care among Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2010;117(2):207-15. e1. 161. Orr P, Barrón Y, Schein OD, Rubin GS, West SK. Eye care utilization by older Americans: the SEE project. Ophthalmology. 1999;106(5):904-9. 162. Baker RS, Bazargan M, Bazargan-Hejazi S, Calderón JL. Access to vision care in an urban low-income multiethnic population. Ophthalmic epidemiology. 2005;12(1):1-12. 163. Thiagalingam S, Cumming R, Mitchell P. Factors associated with undercorrected refractive errors in an older population: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2002;86(9):1041-5. 164. Yawson AE, Ackuaku-Dogbe EM, Seneadza NAH, Mensah G, Minicuci N, Naidoo N, et al. Self-reported cataracts in older adults in Ghana: sociodemographic and health related factors. BMC Public Health. 2014;14(1):949. 165. Mukesh BN, Le A, Dimitrov PN, Ahmed S, Taylor HR, McCarty CA. Development of cataract and associated risk factors: The visual impairment project. Archives of Ophthalmology. 2006;124(1):79-85. 166. Chong EW, Lamoureux EL, Jenkins MA, Aung T, Saw SM, Wong TY. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, and medical risk factors for visual impairment in an urban asian population: the singapore malay eye study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127(12):1640-7. 167. Hu J-Y, Yan L, Chen Y-D, Du X-H, Li T-T, Liu D-A, et al. Population-based survey of prevalence, causes, and risk factors for blindness and visual impairment in an aging Chinese metropolitan population. International journal of ophthalmology. 2017;10(1):140. 168. Abdull MM, Sivasubramaniam S, Murthy GVS, Gilbert C, Abubakar T, Ezelum C, et al. Causes of Blindness and Visual Impairment in Nigeria: The Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 2009;50(9):4114-20. 169. Katibeh M, Pakravan M, Yaseri M, Pakbin M, Soleimanizad R. Prevalence and Causes of Visual Impairment and Blindness in Central Iran; The Yazd Eye Study2015. 279 p. 170. Rim TH, Nam JS, Choi M, Lee SC, Lee CS. Prevalence and risk factors of visual impairment and blindness in Korea: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008–2010. Acta ophthalmologica. 2014;92(4). 171. Pandey MK. Association between marital status and health: examining the role of age and gender. 2008. 172. Fotouhi A, Hashemi H, Mohammad K, Jalali KH. The prevalence and causes of visual impairment in Tehran: the Tehran Eye Study. The British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2004;88(6):740-5. 173. Katibeh M, Rajavi Z, Yaseri M, Hosseini S, Akbarian S, Sehat M. Association of socio-economic status and visual impairment: A population-based study in Iran. Archives of Iranian medicine. 2017;20(1):43-8. 174. Emamian MH, Zeraati H, Majdzadeh R, Shariati M, Hashemi H, Fotouhi A. The Gap of Visual Impairment Between Economic Groups in Shahroud, Iran: A Blinder-Oaxaca Decomposition. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2011;173(12):1463-7. 175. Wang W, Yan W, Muller A, Keel S, He M. Association of Socioeconomics With Prevalence of Visual Impairment and Blindness. JAMA ophthalmology. 2017. 176. Ebeigbe J, Ovenseri-Ogbomo G. Barriers to utilization of eye care services in rural communities in Edo State, Nigeria. Borno med J. 2014;11(2):98-104. 177. Elam AR, Lee PP. Barriers to and suggestions on improving utilization of eye care in high-risk individuals: focus group results. International scholarly research notices. 2014;2014. 178. du Toit R, Ramke J, Naduvilath T, Brian G. Awareness and Use of Eye Care Services in Fiji. Ophthalmic Epidemiology. 2006;13(5):309-20. 179. Ocansey S, Kumi-Kyereme A, Awusabo-Asare K, Ilechie AA, Boadi-Kusi SB, Abraham CH. Utilization of eye care services among Ghanaian elderly population: Evidence from a peri-urban community. Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal. 2013;1(2):89-101. 180. Grimes CE, Bowman KG, Dodgion CM, Lavy CB. Systematic review of barriers to surgical care in low-income and middle-income countries. World journal of surgery. 2011;35(5):941-50. 181. Ubah JN, Isawumi MA, Adeoti CO. Barriers to uptake of cataract surgery: An eye camp account. Research in Ophthalmology. 2013;2(1):1-3. 182. Fotouhi A, Hashemi H, Mohammad K. Eye care utilization patterns in Tehran population: a population based cross-sectional study. BMC Ophthalmology. 2006;6(1):4. 183. Kimani K, Lindfield R, Senyonjo L, Mwaniki A, Schmidt E. Prevalence and Causes of Ocular Morbidity in Mbeere District, Kenya. Results of a Population-Based Survey. PLOS ONE. 2013;8(8):e70009. 184. lakho K, Mohamed Ali A. Pattern of eye diseases at tertiary eye hospital in Sudan (Makah Eye Hospital, Khartoum). Al-Basar International Journal of Ophthalmology. 2015;3(1):15-8. 185. Lakho K, Qureshi M, Khan M, Khan M, Ahmad K. Pattern of eye diseases at the primary health centers in a Pakistani district. Sudan Medical Monitor. 2013;8(4):171-3. 186. Ukponmwan CU. Pattern of ocular morbidity in Nigeria. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 2013;3(2):164-6. 187. Amarnath R. Prevalence and pattern of ocular morbidity and factors influencing ocular morbidity in a rural population in south India: a community based cross sectional study. International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health. 2017;4(8):2939-45. 188. Awoyemi T, Obayelu O, Opaluwa H. Effect of distance on utilization of health care services in rural Kogi State, Nigeria. Journal of human Ecology. 2011;35(1):1-9. 189. Buor D. Analysing the primacy of distance in the utilization of health services in the Ahafo-Ano South district, Ghana. The International journal of health planning and management. 2003;18(4):293-311. 190. Feikin DR, Nguyen LM, Adazu K, Ombok M, Audi A, Slutsker L, et al. The impact of distance of residence from a peripheral health facility on pediatric health utilisation in rural western Kenya. Tropical Medicine & International Health. 2009;14(1):54-61. 191. Al-Taiar A, Clark A, Longenecker JC, Whitty CJ. Physical accessibility and utilization of health services in Yemen. International Journal of Health Geographics. 2010;9(1):38. 192. Blanford JI, Kumar S, Luo W, MacEachren AM. It’s a long, long walk: accessibility to hospitals, maternity and integrated health centers in Niger. International Journal of Health Geographics. 2012;11:24-. 193. Tanser F, Gijsbertsen B, Herbst K. Modelling and understanding primary health care accessibility and utilization in rural South Africa: An exploration using a geographical information system. Social Science & Medicine. 2006;63(3):691-705. 194. L V Prasad Eye Institute. How Smoking Can Affect Vision 2016. Available from: http://www.lvpei.org/EyeTopics/EyeHealth/Diabeticretinopathy/HowSmokingcanaffectvision.php. Access date: 15.11.2017 195. Velilla S, Garc, #xed, a-Medina J, #xe9, Javier, et al. Smoking and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Review and Update. Journal of Ophthalmology. 2013;2013:11. 196. Thornton J, Edwards R, Mitchell P, Harrison RA, Buchan I, Kelly SP. Smoking and age-related macular degeneration: a review of association. Eye (Lond). 2005;19(9):935-44. 197. Raju P, George R, Ramesh SV, Arvind H, Baskaran M, Vijaya L. Influence of tobacco use on cataract development. The British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2006;90(11):1374-7. 198. Kalyani P, Revathi MS, Patro NSR. Effect of Chronic Cigarette Smoking On Cataract. 199. Bonovas S, Filioussi K, Tsantes A, Peponis V. Epidemiological association between cigarette smoking and primary open-angle glaucoma: a meta-analysis. Public Health. 2004;118(4):256-61. 200. Klein R, Klein BEK, Moss SE, Cruickshanks KJ. The Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy: XVII: The 14-year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy and associated risk factors in type 1 diabetes11Proprietary interest: none. Ophthalmology. 1998;105(10):1801-15. 201. Sahai A, Malik P. Dry Eye: Prevalence and Attributable Risk Factors in a Hospital-Based Population. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2005;53(2):87-91. 202. Nasir K, Rehan N. Epidemiology of cigarette smoking in Pakistan. Addiction. 2001;96(12):1847-54. 203. Moosazadeh M, Ziaaddini H, Mirzazadeh A, Ashrafi-Asgarabad A, Haghdoost AA. Meta-analysis of Smoking Prevalence in Iran. Addiction & Health. 2013;5(3-4):140-53. 204. Ng M, Freeman MK, Fleming TD, et al. Smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption in 187 countries, 1980-2012. JAMA. 2014;311(2):183-92. 205. World Health Organization. Global Database on Body Mass Index 2017. Available from: http://apps.who.int/bmi/index.jsp?introPage=intro_3.html. Access date: 19.11.2017. 206. Maruf FA, Udoji NV. Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Overweight and Obesity in a Nigerian Population. J Epidemiol. 2015;25(7):475-81. 207. Amin F, Fatima SS, Islam N, Gilani AH. Prevalence of obesity and overweight, its clinical markers and associated factors in a high risk South-Asian population. BMC obesity. 2015;2:16. 208. Nikooyeh B, Abdollahi Z, Salehi F, Nourisaeidlou S, Hajifaraji M, Zahedirad M, et al. Prevalence of Obesity and Overweight and Its Associated Factors in Urban Adults from West Azerbaijan, Iran: The National Food and Nutritional Surveillance Program (NFNSP). Nutrition and Food Sciences Research. 2016;3(2):21-6. 209. Joung IM, Stronks K, van de Mheen H, Mackenbach JP. Health behaviours explain part of the differences in self reported health associated with partner/marital status in The Netherlands. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 1995;49(5):482-8. 210. Noppa H, Bengtsson C. Obesity in relation to socioeconomic status. A population study of women in Göteborg, Sweden. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 1980;34(2):139-42. 211. Braddon FE, Rodgers B, Wadsworth ME, Davies JM. Onset of obesity in a 36 year birth cohort study. British Medical Journal (Clinical research ed). 1986;293(6542):299-303. 212. Sobal J, Rauschenbach BS, Frongillo EA. Marital status, fatness and obesity. Social Science & Medicine. 1992;35(7):915-23. 213. Lipowicz A, Gronkiewicz S, Malina RM. Body mass index, overweight and obesity in married and never married men and women in Poland. American Journal of Human Biology. 2002;14(4):468-75. 214. Tzotzas T, Vlahavas G, Papadopoulou SK, Kapantais E, Kaklamanou D, Hassapidou M. Marital status and educational level associated to obesity in Greek adults: data from the National Epidemiological Survey. BMC Public Health. 2010;10(1):732. 215. Amini M, Rezvanian H, Gouya M-M, Delavari A, Alikhani S, Mahdavi A. Association of body mass index and abdominal obesity with marital status in adults. Archives of Iranian medicine. 2008;11(3):274-81. 216. Dinour L, Leung MM, Tripicchio G, Khan S, Yeh M-C. The Association between Marital Transitions, Body Mass Index, and Weight: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Obesity. 2012;2012:16. 217. Al-Malki JS, Al-Jaser MH, Warsy AS. Overweight and obesity in Saudi females of childbearing age. International Journal Of Obesity. 2003;27:134. 218. Kang HT, Lee HR, Lee YJ, Linton JA, Shim JY. Relationship between employment status and obesity in a Korean elderly population, based on the 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Archives of gerontology and geriatrics. 2013;57(1):54-9. 219. El Kishawi RR, Soo KL, Abed YA, Muda WAMW. Obesity and overweight: prevalence and associated socio demographic factors among mothers in three different areas in the Gaza Strip-Palestine: a cross-sectional study. BMC obesity. 2014;1:7. 220. Aslan D, Altin Z, BEYDAĞ N, HATİPOĞLU C. Does employment status influence obesity prevalence among females? A comparative study from Ankara, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences. 2009;39(5):701-7. 221. Mihardja L, Soetrisno U. Prevalence and determinant factors for overweight and obesity and degenerative diseases among young adults in Indonesia. Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies. 2014;27(1):77. 222. Rachmi CN, Li M, Alison Baur L. Overweight and obesity in Indonesia: prevalence and risk factors—a literature review. Public Health.147:20-9. 223. Rivas‐Marino G, Negin J, Salinas‐Rodríguez A, Manrique‐Espinoza B, Sterner KN, Snodgrass J, et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in older Mexican adults and its association with physical activity and related factors: An analysis of the study on global ageing and adult health. American Journal of Human Biology. 2015;27(3):326-33. 224. Andrade SSCdA, Malta DC, Iser BM, Sampaio PC, Moura Ld. Prevalence of self-reported arterial hypertension in Brazilian capitals in 2011 and analysis of its trends in the period between 2006 and 2011. Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia. 2014;17:215-26. 225. Chow CK, Teo KK, Rangarajan S, et al. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in rural and urban communities in high-, middle-, and low-income countries. JAMA. 2013;310(9):959-68. 226. Cheraghian B, Asadi-Lari M, Mansournia MA, Majdzadeh R, Mohammad K, Nedjat S, et al. Prevalence and associated factors of self-reported hypertension among Tehran adults in 2011: a population-based study (Urban HEART-2). Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran. 2014;28:105-. 227. Shaw JE, Sicree RA, Zimmet PZ. Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2010;87(1):4-14. 228. Devi R, Kapoor B, Singh MM. Prevalence of self-reported Type 2 diabetes mellitus and associated socio-economic-demographic factors among adults above 20 years in a residential area of Delhi. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2016;7(4):6-13. 229. Asadi-Lari M, Khosravi A, Nedjat S, Mansournia MA, Majdzadeh R, Mohammad K, et al. Socioeconomic status and prevalence of self-reported diabetes among adults in Tehran: results from a large population-based cross-sectional study (Urban HEART-2). Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. 2016;39(5):515-22. 230. Tapp RJ, Shaw JE, Harper CA, de Courten MP, Balkau B, McCarty DJ, et al. The Prevalence of and Factors Associated With Diabetic Retinopathy in the Australian Population. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(6):1731-7. 231. Cramer JA. A systematic review of adherence with medications for diabetes. Diabetes care. 2004;27(9):2285-. 232. World Health Oraganization. Causes of blindness and visual impairment 2017. Available from: http://www.who.int/blindness/causes/en/. Access dat: 23.11.2017. 233. Hashemi H, Rezvan F, Yekta A, Ostadimoghaddam H, Soroush S, Dadbin N, et al. The Prevalence and Causes of Visaual Impairment and Blindness in a Rural Population in the North of Iran. Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2015;44(6):855-64. 234. Al-Shaaln FF, Bakrman MA, Ibrahim AM, Aljoudi AS. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment among Saudi adults attending primary health care centers in northern Saudi Arabia. Annals of Saudi Medicine. 2011;31(5):473-80. 235. Nowak MS, Smigielski J. The Prevalence and Causes of Visual Impairment and Blindness Among Older Adults in the City of Lodz, Poland. Medicine. 2015;94(5):e505. 236. Muñoz B, West SK, Rubin GS, et al. Causes of blindness and visual impairment in a population of older americans: The salisbury eye evaluation study. Archives of Ophthalmology. 2000;118(6):819-25. 237. Buch H, Vinding T, la Cour M, Appleyard M, Jensen GB, Vesti Nielsen N. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness among 9980 Scandinavian adults: The Copenhagen City Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(1):53-61. 238. Fouad D, Mousa A, Courtright P. Sociodemographic characteristics associated with blindness in a Nile Delta governorate of Egypt. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2004;88(5):614-8. 239. Varma R, Ying-Lai M, Klein R, Azen SP. Prevalence and risk indicators of visual impairment and blindness in Latinos: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(6):1132-40. 240. Dineen BP, Bourne RRA, Ali SM, Huq DMN, Johnson GJ. Prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in Bangladeshi adults: results of the National Blindness and Low Vision Survey of Bangladesh. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2003;87(7):820-8. 241. Haddadin A, Ereifej I, Zawaida F, Haddadin H. Causes of visual impairment and blindness among the middle-aged and elderly in northern Jordan. 2002. 242. Zainal M, Ismail SM, Ropilah AR, Elias H, Arumugam G, Alias D, et al. Prevalence of blindness and low vision in Malaysian population: results from the National Eye Survey 1996. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2002;86(9):951-6. 243. Guo C, Wang Z, He P, Chen G, Zheng X. Prevalence, Causes and Social Factors of Visual Impairment among Chinese Adults: Based on a National Survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2017;14(9):1034. 244. Pan C-W, Qian D-J, Sun H-P, Ma Q, Xu Y, Song E. Visual impairment among older adults in a rural community in eastern China. Journal of ophthalmology. 2016;2016. 245. Seland JH, Vingerling JR, Augood CA, Bentham G, Chakravarthy U, deJong PT, et al. Visual impairment and quality of life in the older European population, the EUREYE study. Acta ophthalmologica. 2011;89(7):608-13. 246. Ahmad K, Khan MD, Qureshi MB, Munami S, Shah RA, Rasheed H, et al. Prevalence and Causes of Blindness and Low Vision in a Rural Setting in Pakistan. Ophthalmic Epidemiology. 2005;12(1):19-23. 247. Dandona L, Dandona R, Srinivas M, Giridhar P, Vilas K, Prasad MN, et al. Blindness in the Indian State of Andhra Pradesh. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 2001;42(5):908-16. 248. Pokharel GP, Regmi G, Shrestha SK, Negrel AD, Ellwein LB. Prevalence of blindness and cataract surgery in Nepal. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 1998;82(6):600-5. 249. Hashemi H, Khabazkhoob M, Saatchi M, Ostadimoghaddam H, Yekta A. Visual impairment and blindness in a population-based study of Mashhad, Iran. Journal of Current Ophthalmology. 2017. 250. Katibeh M, Pakravan M, Yaseri M, Pakbin M, Soleimanizad R. Prevalence and Causes of Visual Impairment and Blindness in Central Iran; The Yazd Eye Study. Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research. 2015;10(3):279-85. 251. Ramke J, Palagyi A, Naduvilath T, du Toit R. Prevalence and causes of blindness and low vision in Timor‐Leste. The British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2007;91(9):1117-21. 252. Dineen BP, Bourne RRA, Ali SM, Huq DMN, Johnson GJ. Prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in Bangladeshi adults: results of the National Blindness and Low Vision Survey of Bangladesh. The British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2003;87(7):820-8. 253. Cockburn N, Steven D, Lecuona K, Joubert F, Rogers G, Cook C, et al. Prevalence, causes and socio-economic determinants of vision loss in Cape Town, South Africa. PloS one. 2012;7(2):e30718. 254. Dandona R, Dandona L. Socioeconomic status and blindness. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2001;85(12):1484-8. 255. Ratnaningsh N. Prevalence of blindness and low vision in Sawah Kulon village, Purwakarta district, West Java, Indonesia. Community Eye Health. 2007;20(61):9-. 256. Li Y, Crews JE, Elam-Evans LD, Fan AZ, Zhang X, Elliott AF, et al. Visual impairment and health-related quality of life among elderly adults with age-related eye diseases. Quality of Life Research. 2011;20(6):845-52. 257. Sujatha M, Nazlin A, Prakash S, Nousheen S. Prevalence of visual impairment after blunt ocular trauma in a tertiary hospital. Int J Sci Stud. 2015;3(4):36-9. 258. Seddon JM, Cote J, Davis N, Rosner B. Progression of age-related macular degeneration: Association with body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio. Archives of Ophthalmology. 2003;121(6):785-92. 259. Seddon JM, Reynolds R, Yu Y, Daly MJ, Rosner B. Risk Models for Progression to Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using Demographic, Environmental, Genetic, and Ocular Factors. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(11):2203-11. 260. Cheung N, Wong TY. Obesity and Eye Diseases. Survey of ophthalmology. 2007;52(2):180-95. 261. Garin N, Olaya B, Lara E, Moneta MV, Miret M, Ayuso-Mateos JL, et al. Visual impairment and multimorbidity in a representative sample of the Spanish population. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:815. 262. Younan C, Mitchell P, Cumming R, Rochtchina E, Panchapakesan J, Tumuluri K. Cardiovascular disease, vascular risk factors and the incidence of cataract and cataract surgery: The Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmic Epidemiology. 2003;10(4):227-40. 263. Ulldemolins AR, Lansingh VC, Valencia LG, Carter MJ, Eckert KA. Social inequalities in blindness and visual impairment: A review of social determinants. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2012;60(5):368-75. 264. Whillans J, Nazroo J. Social Inequality and Visual Impairment in Older People. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B. 2016:gbv163-gbv. 265. Tielsch JM, Sommer A, Katz J, Quigley H, Ezrine S. Socioeconomic status and visual impairment among urban americans. Archives of Ophthalmology. 1991;109(5):637-41. 266. Reutter L, Kushner KE. ‘Health equity through action on the social determinants of health’: taking up the challenge in nursing. Nursing inquiry. 2010;17(3):269-80. 267. World Health Oraganization. Commission on Social Determinants of Health - final report 2017. Available from: http://www.who.int/social_determinants/thecommission/finalreport/en/. Accesss date: 02.12.2017. 268. Harding JJ. Recent studies of risk factors and protective factors for cataract. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology. 1997;8(1):46-9. 269. Howard KP, Klein BEK, Lee KE, Klein R. Measures of Body Shape and Adiposity as Related to Incidence of Age-Related Eye Diseases: Observations From the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 2014;55(4):2592-8. 270. Bulpitt CJ, Hodes C, Everitt MG. Intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure in the elderly. The British Journal of Ophthalmology. 1975;59(12):717-20. 271. Wu S, Leske M. Associations with intraocular pressure in the barbados eye study. Archives of Ophthalmology. 1997;115(12):1572-6. 272. Mori K, Ando F, Nomura H, Sato Y, Shimokata H. Relationship between intraocular pressure and obesity in Japan. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2000;29(4):661-6. 273. Delcourt C, Michel F, Colvez A, Lacroux A, Delage M, Vernet M-H. Associations of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors with age-related macular degeneration: the POLA study. Ophthalmic epidemiology. 2001;8(4):237-49. 274. Klein BE, Klein R, Lee KE, Jensen SC. Measures of obesity and age-related eye diseases. Ophthalmic epidemiology. 2001;8(4):251-62. 275. Schaumberg DA, Christen WG, Hankinson SE, Glynn RJ. Body mass index and the incidence of visually significant age-related maculopathy in men. Archives of Ophthalmology. 2001;119(9):1259-64. 276. Ballard D, Melton L, Dwyer M, Trautmann J, Chu C, O'Fallon W, et al. Risk factors for diabetic retinopathy: a population-based study in Rochester, Minnesota. Diabetes care. 1986;9(4):334-42. 277. van Leiden HA, Dekker JM, Moll AC, Nijpels G, Heine RJ, Bouter LM, et al. Blood Pressure, Lipids, and Obesity Are Associated With Retinopathy. The Hoorn Study. 2002;25(8):1320-5. 278. Wong TY, Larsen EKM, Klein R, Mitchell P, Couper DJ, Klein BEK, et al. Cardiovascular Risk Factors for Retinal Vein Occlusion and Arteriolar Emboli: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities & Cardiovascular Health studies. Ophthalmology. 2005;112(4):540-7. 279. Yu X, Lyu D, Dong X, He J, Yao K. Hypertension and Risk of Cataract: A Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(12):e114012. 280. Tan JSL, Wang JJ, Mitchell P. Influence of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease on the Long-Term Incidence of Cataract: The Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmic Epidemiology. 2008;15(5):317-27. 281. Prokofyeva E, Wegener A, Zrenner E. Cataract prevalence and prevention in Europe: a literature review. Acta Ophthalmologica. 2013;91(5):395-405. 282. Chang JR, Koo E, Agrón E, Hallak J, Clemons T, Azar D, et al. Risk factors associated with incident cataracts and cataract surgery in the Age Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS). AREDS Report Number 32. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(11):2113-9. 283. Nath T, Roy SS, Kumar H, Agrawal R, Kumar S, Satsangi S. Prevalence of Steroid-Induced Cataract and Glaucoma in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients Attending a Tertiary Care Center in India. Asia-Pacific journal of ophthalmology (Philadelphia, Pa). 2017;6(1):28. 284. Gartlehner G, Hansen RA, Carson SS, Lohr KN. Efficacy and Safety of Inhaled Corticosteroids in Patients With COPD: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Health Outcomes. Annals of Family Medicine. 2006;4(3):253-62. 285. Williamson J, Paterson RW, McGavin DD, Jasani MK, Boyle JA, Doig WM. Posterior subcapsular cataracts and glaucoma associated with long-term oral corticosteroid therapy. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis and related conditions. The British Journal of Ophthalmology. 1969;53(6):361-72. 286. Smeeth L, Boulis M, Hubbard R, Fletcher AE. A population based case-control study of cataract and inhaled corticosteroids. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2003;87(10):1247-51. 287. Weatherall M, Clay J, James K, Perrin K, Shirtcliffe P, Beasley R. Dose–response relationship of inhaled corticosteroids and cataracts: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Respirology. 2009;14(7):983-90. 288. Liu YT, Hung TY, Lee YK, Huang MY, Hsu CY, Su YC. Association between Chronic Kidney Disease and Risk of Cataract: A Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study. American Journal of Nephrology. 2017;45(6):524-31. 289. Song BJ, Aiello LP, Pasquale LR. Presence and Risk Factors for Glaucoma in Patients with Diabetes. Current diabetes reports. 2016;16(12):124-. 290. Jung Y, Han K, Park HYL, Park CK. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk of open-angle glaucoma development in Koreans: An 11-year nationwide propensity-score-matched study. Diabetes & Metabolism. 2017. 291. Zhou M, Wang W, Huang W, Zhang X. Diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for open-angle glaucoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS one. 2014;9(8):e102972. 292. Deb AK, Kaliaperumal S, Rao VA, Sengupta S. Relationship between systemic hypertension, perfusion pressure and glaucoma: A comparative study in an adult Indian population. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2014;62(9):917-22. 293. Bae HW, Lee N, Lee HS, Hong S, Seong GJ, Kim CY. Systemic Hypertension as a Risk Factor for Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Meta-Analysis of Population-Based Studies. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(9):e108226. 294. Chung HJ, Hwang HB, Lee NY. The Association between Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Blood Pressure: Two Aspects of Hypertension and Hypotension. BioMed Research International. 2015;2015:7. 295. Klein R, Klein BEK, Tomany SC, Cruickshanks KJ. The association of cardiovascular disease with the long-term incidence of age-related maculopathy: The Beaver Dam eye study. Ophthalmology. 2003;110(4):636-43. 296. Klein R, Klein BEK, Jensen SC. The Relation of Cardiovascular Disease and Its Risk Factors to the 5-year Incidence of Age-related Maculopathy. Ophthalmology.104(11):1804-12. 297. Robman L, Taylor H. External factors in the development of cataract. Eye. 2005;19:1074. 298. Seddon J, Fong D, West SK, Valmadrid CT. Epidemiology of risk factors for age-related cataract. Survey of Ophthalmology. 1995;39(4):323-34. 299. Ughade S, Zodpey S, Khanolkar V. Risk factors for cataract: A case control study. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 1998;46(4):221-7. 300. Le A, Mukesh BN, McCarty CA, Taylor HR. Risk Factors Associated with the Incidence of Open-Angle Glaucoma: The Visual Impairment Project. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 2003;44(9):3783-9. 301. Cumming RG, Mitchell P. Alcohol, smoking, and cataracts: The blue mountains eye study. Archives of Ophthalmology. 1997;115(10):1296-303. 302. Krishnaiah S, Vilas K, Shamanna BR, Rao GN, Thomas R, Balasubramanian D. Smoking and Its Association with Cataract: Results of the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study from India. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 2005;46(1):58-65. 303. Christen WG, Manson JE, Seddon JM, et al. A prospective study of cigarette smoking and risk of cataract in men. JAMA. 1992;268(8):989-93. 304. Hiller R, Sperduto RD, Podgor MJ, Wilson PW, Ferris FL, 3rd, Colton T, et al. Cigarette smoking and the risk of development of lens opacities. The Framingham studies. Arch Ophthalmol. 1997;115(9):1113-8. 305. Tan JSL, Wang JJ, Younan C, Cumming RG, Rochtchina E, Mitchell P. Smoking and the Long-Term Incidence of Cataract: The Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmic Epidemiology. 2008;15(3):155-61. 306. Pérez-de-Arcelus M, Toledo E, Martínez-González MÁ, Martín-Calvo N, Fernández-Montero A, Moreno-Montañés J. Smoking and incidence of glaucoma: The SUN Cohort. Medicine. 2017;96(1):e5761. 307. Ponte F, GiuffrÉ G, Giammanco R, Dardanoni G. Risk factors of ocular hypertension and glaucoma. Documenta Ophthalmologica. 1994;85(3):203-10. 308. Klein R, Klein BEK, Moss SE. Relation of Smoking to the Incidence of Age-related MaculopathyThe Beaver Dam Eye Study. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1998;147(2):103-10. 309. Thornton J, Edwards R, Mitchell P, Harrison RA, Buchan I, Kelly SP. Smoking and age-related macular degeneration: a review of association. Eye. 2005;19:935. 310. Mehta R, Patil M, Page S. Comparative study of cataract in hypertensive patients and non-hypertensive patients. Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. 2016;2(2):153-7. 311. Klein BEK, Klein R, Jensen SC, Linton KLP. Hypertension and Lens Opacities From the Beaver Dam Eye Study. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 1995;119(5):640-6. 312. Bautista L, Vera L, Arenas I, Gamarra G. Independent association between inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and TNF-α) and essential hypertension. Journal of human hypertension. 2005;19(2):149-54. 313. Virgolici B, Stoian I, Muscurel C, Maracine M, Popescu L, Moraru C, et al. Systemic redox modifications in senile cataract. Rom J Intern Med. 2009;47(3):279-87. 314. Lee SM, Lin SY, Li MJ, Liang RC. Possible Mechanism of Exacerbating Cataract Formation in Cataractous Human Lens Capsules Induced by Systemic Hypertension or Glaucoma. Ophthalmic Research. 1997;29(2):83-90. 315. Cumming RG, Mitchell P. Medications and cataract: The blue mountains eye study. Ophthalmology. 1998;105(9):1751-8. 316. McCarty CA, Nanjan MB, Taylor HR. Attributable Risk Estimates for Cataract to Prioritize Medical and Public Health Action. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 2000;41(12):3720-5. 317. McCarty CA, Mukesh BN, Fu CL, Taylor HR. The epidemiology of cataract in Australia. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 1999;128(4):446-65. 318. Furić K, Mohaček-Grošev V, Hadžija M. Development of cataract caused by diabetes mellitus: Raman study. Journal of Molecular Structure. 2005;744-747(Supplement C):169-77. 319. Harris B, Goudge J, Ataguba JE, McIntyre D, Nxumalo N, Jikwana S, et al. Inequities in access to health care in South Africa. Journal of Public Health Policy. 2011;32(1):S102-S23. 320. Lalloo R, Smith M, Myburgh N, Solanki G. Access to health care in South Africa-the influence of race and class. South African Medical Journal. 2004;94(8):639-42. 321. Langman MJS, Lancashire RJ, Cheng KK, Stewart PM. Systemic hypertension and glaucoma: mechanisms in common and co-occurrence. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2005;89(8):960-3. 322. Zarei R, Ghasemi H, Jamshidi S, Daneshvar R, Abdollahi A, Nemattollahi MK, et al. The association of primary open angle glaucoma and systemic hypertension in patients referred to Farabi Eye Hospital. Iranian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2011;23(2):31-4. 323. Klein R, Klein BEK, Jensen SC. The Relation of Cardiovascular Disease and Its Risk Factors to the 5-year Incidence of Age-related Maculopathy: The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 1997;104(11):1804-12. 324. Miyazaki M, Nakamura H, Kubo M, Kiyohara Y, Oshima Y, Ishibashi T, et al. Risk factors for age related maculopathy in a Japanese population: the Hisayama study. The British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2003;87(4):469-72. 325. Chaine G, Hullo A, Sahel J, Soubrane G, Espinasse-Berrod M, Schutz D, et al. Case-control study of the risk factors for age related macular degeneration. The British Journal of Ophthalmology. 1998;82(9):996-1002. 326. Klein R, Klein BEK, Moss SE, Wong TY. THE RELATIONSHIP OF RETINOPATHY IN PERSONS WITHOUT DIABETES TO THE 15-YEAR INCIDENCE OF DIABETES AND HYPERTENSION: BEAVER DAM EYE STUDY. Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society. 2006;104:98-107. 327. Venkatramani J, Mitchell P. Ocular and systemic causes of retinopathy in patients without diabetes mellitus. BMJ : British Medical Journal. 2004;328(7440):625-9. 328. Bhargava M, Ikram MK, Wong TY. How does hypertension affect your eyes? Journal Of Human Hypertension. 2011;26:71. 329. Wat N, Wong RL, Wong IY. Associations between diabetic retinopathy and systemic risk factors. Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi. 2016;22(6):589-99. 330. Srivastava B, Rema M. Does hypertension play a role in diabetic retinopathy? The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India. 2005;53:803-8. 331. Ernest-Nwoke I, Ozor M, Akpamu U, Oyakhire M. Relationship between body mass index, blood pressure, and visual acuity in residents of Esan west local government area of Edo state, Nigeria. Physiology Journal. 2014;2014. 332. Varma R, Vajaranant TS, Burkemper B, Wu S, Torres M, Hsu C, et al. Visual Impairment and Blindness in Adults in the United States: Demographic and Geographic Variations from 2015 to 2050. JAMA ophthalmology. 2016;134(7):802-9. 333. Taylor HR. Epidemiology of age-related cataract. Eye. 1999;13:445. 334. Neale RE, Purdie JL, Hirst LW, Green AC. Sun Exposure as a Risk Factor for Nuclear Cataract. Epidemiology. 2003;14(6):707-12. 335. Cruickshanks KJ, Klein BE, Klein R. Ultraviolet light exposure and lens opacities: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Am J Public Health. 1992;82(12):1658-62. 336. Bochow TW, West SK, Azar A, Munoz B, Sommer A, Taylor HR. Ultraviolet light exposure and risk of posterior subcapsular cataracts. Archives of ophthalmology. 1989;107(3):369-72. 337. West SK, Longstreth JD, Munoz BE, Pitcher HM, Duncan DD. Model of Risk of Cortical Cataract in the US Population with Exposure to Increased Ultraviolet Radiation due to Stratospheric Ozone Depletion. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2005;162(11):1080-8. 338. McCarty C, Taylor H. A review of the epidemiologic evidence linking ultraviolet radiation and cataracts. Progress in lens and cataract research. 35: Karger Publishers; 2002. p. 21-31.tr_TR
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11655/4325
dc.description.abstractAbdianwall, M. H. Prevalence of Visual Impairment among People Aged 50 Years and Older and Related Factors In Nangarhar Province of Afghanistan, Hacettepe Unıversity, Institute of Health Science, Epidemiology Program Doctor of Philosophy Thesis, Ankara, 2018. The study was aimed to determine the prevalence, main causes, and related factors of visual impairment among 50 years and over population in Jalalabad City and four surrounding districts, Nangarhar Province of Afghanistan. The data of this population based cross-sectional study was gathered in the year 2015. The sample size was calculated as 1,353 and allocated to urban and rural strata using probability proportion to size method. Visual impairment was defined as presenting visual acuity of less than 6/18 and blindness as visual acuity less than 3/60 in the better eye by using Snellen chart only. Data was analyzed using IBM SPSS 21.0 computer software program. At the end of the field study, 1,281 eligible completed the interview and eye examination. The prevalence of visual impairment was 22.6% (95% CI, 20–25) of which 13.9% (95% CI, 12–16) was low vision and 8.7% (95% CI, 7–10) was blindness. The most common causes of the visual impairment were cataract (52.8%), followed by refractive error (RE) (26.9%) and glaucoma (8.6%). Number one cause of the low vision was RE (42%), followed by cataract, glaucoma, age related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopaty (DR), while for blindness cataract (72%), other posterior segment disorders, glaucoma, RE and AMD. Illiteracy, bad economic status, hypertension and overweight were factors independently associated with both visual impairment and low vision, whereas, age, illiteracy, bad economic status, hypertension and using of sunglasses were independently associated with blindness. Cataract, RE, glaucoma, AMD and DR were the leading causes of visual impairment and blindness in the study area, which are avoidable mostly. For decreasing the burden of visual impairment and blindness, applying already developed policies concerning prevention of visual impairment and blindness is strongly recommended for the area as well as the whole country.en
dc.description.sponsorshipMinistory of Higher Education Afghanistantr_TR
dc.description.tableofcontentsAPPROVAL ⅲ YAYIMLAMA VE FİKRİ MÜLKİYET HAKLARI BEYANI ⅳ ETHICAL DECLARATION ⅴ AKNOWLEDGEMENT ⅵ ABSTRACT ⅶ ÖZET Viii CONTENTS Ix ABREVATIONS Xiii FIGURES Xv TABLES Xvi 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1. Rational 1 1.2. Aim and Objectives 3 1.2.1. Short-term Objectives 3 1.2.2. Mid-term Objectives 3 1.2.3. Long-term Objectives 3 2 GENERAL INFORMATION 4 2.1. Anatomy of the Eye 4 2.2. Physiology of the Eye 10 2.2.1. Physiology of Vision 11 2.2.2. Mechanism of the Vision 11 2.2.3. Assessment of Vision 12 2.3. Visual Impairment and Blindness 13 2.3.1. Magnitude of Visual Impairment 14 2.3.2. Worldwide Distribution of Visual Impairment 14 2.3.3. Visual Impairment in Developed versus Developing Countries 15 2.3.4. Distribution of Visual Impairment by Some Personal Characteristics 16 2.3.5. Socioeconomic Consequences of Visual Impairment and Blindness 17 2.3.6. Main Causes of Visual Impairment 17 2.3.7. Main Causes of Blindness in Developed versus Developing Countries 19 2.3.8. Prevention of Visual Impairment 19 2.4. Situation in Afghanistan 21 3 MATERIALS AND METHOD 23 3.1. Type of the Study 23 3.2. Study Area 23 3.3. Study Population 27 3.4. Sampling Frame 28 3.5. Sample Size Calculation 28 3.6. Sampling Method 29 3.7. Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria 30 3.8. Flow Chart of the Study 30 3.8.1. Sampling in Jalalabad 32 3.8.2. Sampling in Districts 32 3.9. Variables 35 3.10. Terms and Criteria 36 3.11. Survey Instrument 37 3.12. Examination of the Eye 37 3.13. Data Quality Control 39 3.14. Man Power and Training 39 3.15. Data Entry and Statistical Analysis 39 3.16 Ethical Issues 40 4 RESULTS 41 4.1. Descriptive Analysis 41 4.1.1. Socio-demographic Characteristics of the Participants 41 4.1.2. Characteristics Related to the Responder’s Health Status. Chronic Disease and Medications 50 4.1.3. Characteristics of the Participants Related to Tobacco Use 68 4.1.4. Socio-demographic Characteristics of the Participants with BMI 69 4.1.5. Characteristics of the Participants Related to HTN and DM 71 4.1.6. Prevalence and Common Causes of Visual Impairment 73 4.2. Bivariate Analysis 75 4.2.1. Socio-demographic Characteristics of Visually Impaired participants 75 4.2.2. Characteristics Related to Eye Health and General Health of the Visual Impaired Participants 80 4.2.3. Smoking Characteristics of Visual Impaired Participants 88 4.3 Multivariate Analysis 89 4.3.1. Visual Impairment 89 4.3.2. Low vision 98 4.3.3. Blindness 106 5 DISCUSSION 115 5.1. Prevalence of Visual Impairment and Blindness 115 5.2. Ratio of Low Vision and Blindness 116 5.3. Some Socio-demographic Characteristics of the Participants 117 5.4. Characteristics of Responders Related to Hours Spent Outdoor 120 5.5. Eye Protection Use while Being Outdoor 120 5.6. Type of Professions 121 5.7. Eye Protection Use while Working 121 5.8. Type of the Work (Professions) and Eye Protection Usage 123 5.9. Participants Health Status. Chronic Disease and Medications 123 5.10. Relationship Between Socio-demographic Characteristics and Perceived Health Status 129 5.11. Relationship Between Socio-demographic Characteristics and Chronic diseases 128 5.12. Characteristics Related to the Participant’s Medication Use and Sex 131 5.13. Characteristics Related to the Participant’s Eye Health 131 5.14. Socio-demographic Characteristics of the Participants Visiting an Ophthalmologist 133 5.15. Characteristics of the Participants with Experienced Eye Complaints 134 5.16. Socio-demographic Characteristics of Participants’ Eye Problems Diagnosed by Physician 136 5.17. Barriers of Eye Care Services Utilization 136 5.18. Pattern of Eye Diseases Diagnosed by an Ophthalmologist 138 5.19. Place of Residence and Availability of Health Services 139 5.20. Characteristics of the Participants Related to Smoking 140 5.21. Socio-demographic Characteristics of Underweight. Overweight and Obese Participants 140 5.22. Some Characteristics Related to Hypertensive Participants 142 5.23. Some Characteristics of Diabetic Participants 143 5.24. Common Causes of Visual Impairment 144 5.25. Distribution of Visual Impairment by Sex 146 5.26. Main Causes of Low Vision and Blindness 146 5.27. Socio-demographic Characteristics of Visually Impaired Participants 147 5.28. Socio-demographic Characteristics of Blind Participants 148 5.29. Some Socio-demographic Characteristics of Participants with Low Vision 149 5.30. Eye Health of Visually Impaired Participants 150 5.31. Health. Obesity and Chronic Diseases of Visually Impaired Participants 150 5.32. Health and Chronic Diseases Status of participants with Low Vision 151 5.33. Health and Chronic Diseases Status of the Blind Participants 152 5.34. Association of Tobacco with Visual Impairment. Low Vision and Blindness 153 5.35. Association of Hypertension with Visual Impairment 154 5.36. Multivariate Analysis 155 5.37. Limitation of the Study 159 5.38. Strengths of the Study 160 6 CONCLUSION 161 7 RECOMMENDATION 162 8 REFERENCES 164 9 APPENDICES Appendix-1: Questionnaire form Appendix-2: Ethical approval form from Hacettepe University 10 CURRICULUM VITAEtr_TR
dc.language.isoengtr_TR
dc.publisherSağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsütr_TR
dc.rightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/restrictedAccesstr_TR
dc.subjectPrevalanstr_TR
dc.subjectgörsel yetersizliktr_TR
dc.subjectkörlüktr_TR
dc.subjectvisual impairmenttr_TR
dc.subjectblindnesstr_TR
dc.subjectAfghanistantr_TR
dc.subjectAfganistantr_TR
dc.titlePrevalence of Visual Impairment Among People Aged 50 Years and Older and Related Factors in Nangarhar Province of Afghanistantr_TR
dc.typedoctoralThesistr_TR
dc.description.ozetAbdianwall, M. H. Afganistan’ın Nangarhar Eyaleti’nde 50 Yaş ve Üstü Kişilerde Görme Yetersizliği Prevalansı ve İlişkili Faktörler, Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Epidemiyoloji Programı Doktora Tezi, Ankara, 2018. Bu çalışma, Afganistan’ın Nangarhar Eyalet’inde yer alan Jalalabad kent merkezinde ve çevresinde yer alan dört kırsal bölgede yaşayan 50 yaş üstü kişilerde görsel yetersizlik prevalansı, temel nedenleri ve ilişkili faktörleri belirlemek amöacıyla yapımıştır. Toplum tabanlı kesitsel bir araştırma olan çalışmanın verileri 2015 yılında toplanmıştır. Örnek büyüklüğü 1.353 olarak hesaplanmış ve büyüklüğe orantılı olarak kent ve kır tabalalarına dağıtılmıştır. Görsel yetersizlik, Snellen eşeli kullanılarak, görme keskinliğinin iyi olan gözde 6/18’den düşük olması şeklinde, körlük ise 3/60’tan düşük olması şeklinde tanımlanmıştır. Veriler IBM SPSS 21.0 bilgisayar programı kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Saha çalışmasının sonunda, kriterlere uygun olan 1,281 kişi ile görüşülmüş ve göz muayeneleri yapılmıştır. Görsel yetersizliği prevalansı %22.6 (%95 GA, 20–25) olarak saptanmış olup, %13.9’u (%95 GA, 12–16) az görme, %8.7’si (%95 GA, 7–10) körlüktür. Görsel yetersizliğin en sık görülen nedeni katarakt olup (52.8%), bunu kırma kusuru (KK) (26.9%) ve glokom (8.6%) izlemektedir. Az görmenin ilk sıradaki nedeni KK’dir (42%) ve katarakt, glokom, yaşa bağlı maküler dejenerasyon (YBMD) ve diyabetik retinopati (DR) bunu izlemektedir; körlük nedenleri ise sıarsıyla, katarakt (72%), diğer posterior segment bozuklukları, glokom, KK and YBMD’dir. Lojistik regresyon analizi sonunda, okuryazar olmamak, ekonomik durumun kötü olması, hipertansiyon ve fazla kilolu olma hem görsel yetersizlk, hem de az görme için bağımsız ilişkili faktörlerdir. Yaş, okuryazar olmama, ekonomik durumun kötü olması, hipertansiyon ve güneş gözlüğü kullanmama ise körlük ile ilişkili faktörler olarak bulunmuştur. Çalışma bölgesi için katarakt, glokom, YBMD ve DR çoğunlukla önlenebilir görsel yetersizlik ve körlük nedenleridir. Bütün ülkede olduğu gibi, bölgede de görsel yetersizlik ve körlüğün hastalık yükünü azaltabilmek için bu hastalıkların önlenmesi amacıyla halen var olan politikaların uygulanması önerilmektedir.tr_TR
dc.contributor.departmentHalk Sağlığıtr_TR
dc.contributor.authorID10182175tr_TR


Files in this item

Thumbnail

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record