Romanya'da Türkçe Matbuat: Türk Birliği Gazetesi (1930-1939)
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The relation of a group or a community with press varies according to its status of belonging to a majority or a minority. It is expected that the minorities strive to preserve their identities and cultural structures by means of press and raise the awareness of its members on these issues. Following the loss of the Dobrogea region by the Ottoman Empire in 1877-1878, the Turks who have been living in this region for centuries have suddenly become a minority within the newly established Romanian state. This incident had sociological, psychological, economic and political effects on the Turks of Romania. The new Romanian state accelarated its "Romanianisation" policies in Dobrogea, confiscated the lands of the Turkish minority and distributed these lands to the Vlachs. The ultra-nationalists Vlachs disturbed the Turks in the region. These developments pushed the Turks to consider migration to Turkey. While some Turks were in favor of a migration to Turkey as soon as possible, the others were of the opinion that they should remain in their ancestors' lands and continue to keep in touch with the motherland. The Turks who became a minority in Romania started to search ways for preserving their national identity and culture. Within this framework, particularly after the proclamation of the II. Constitutional Monarchy in the Ottoman Empire, we observe an increase in the foundation of associations by Turks and publication of Turkish newspapers. These associations were generally founded by teachers who were influenced by the views of the Young Turks. These associations used mostly the titles of "spreading education" or "culture" in their names. These associations published newspapers or magazines and subscribed their members to these publications. These newspapers treated the problems of the Turkish minority, such as Turkish language education, religious education, political representation of Turks, migration and muftiat. One of the most important associations operating in this field was "Pazarcık Tamîm-i Maarîf Cemiyeti" which was founded in 1909 by the Young Turks in Pazarcık. This association was renamed as "Türk Gençler Derneği" in 1920. Besides Pazarcık, it had branches in Silistre, Köstence, Akkadın, Tutrakan, Hırsova and Kavarna. This association was one of the most active and long-lasting Turkish minority organization in Dobrogea. This association published the "Türk Birliği" (Turkish Union) newspaper as of 1930. The objectif of this study is to analyse the efforts of the Turkish minority in Romania with regard to the preservation of its national identity; to understand how the Turkish press was used in this aim; to shed light on the particular position of the Türk Birliği newspaper among the Turkish press in Romania. In this respect, the historical evolution of the Turkish press in Romania is analysed; efforts of the Türk Birliği newspaper aiming to promote the Turkism ideal, regardless of religious and ethnic origins, among Dobrogea Turks are treated and the role of the aforementioned newspaper in the transmission of the young Turkish Republic's revolutionary principles to the Turks in Romania is exposed. Within the framework of this study, we tried to find answers to the following questions: Was there a Turkish press in Dobrogea during the Ottoman period?, How was the Turkish press influenced after the loss of Romania by the Ottoman Empire?, How did the Young Turks and İbrahim Temo contribute to the Turkish press in Romania?, What was the role of the professors and alumnis of the Medgidia Muslim Seminary on the Turkish community in Romania and on the evolution of the Turkish press in Romania?, Which subjects were mostly treated by the Turkish press in Romania after the proclamation of the II. Constitutional Monarchy in the Ottoman Empire?, Who were the founders of the Türk Birliği newspaper and how was it founded?, What were the ideological features of Türk Birliği?, Which subjects were mostly treated by the newspaper?, What was its position towards Tatarism?, How did it view the Turkish revolutionary principles? In the first chapter, the loss of the Dobrogea region, process of becoming a minority and the migration process of Turks to Anatolia is explained. "Agreement on Migration between Turkey and Romania" and the efforts to include the Gagauz Turks into the said agreement are treated. Consequently, the Turks in Romania and the Turkish press relationship in pursuit of preserving national identity and culture, the evolution of the Turkish press in Romania, the role of the Medgidia Muslim Seminary as an institution which trains Turkish intellectuals in Dobrogea, contributions of the Young Turks and İbrahim Temo to the Turkish press in Romania are assessed. In this chapter, the Turkish press in Romania is classified in several periods and analysed on the basis of these periods. In the second chapter, features of the Türk Birliği newspaper, process of its foundation, its authors and its mission are exposed. The "Young Turks Association" and its ties with the Türk Birliği; the relations between İbrahim Temo and the newspaper; its bonds with the Türk Ocakları and Ambassador Hamdullah Suphi Tanrıöver are treated. In this section, nationalist aspects of the Türk Birliği and the ideological similarities between the newspaper and the young Turkish Republic are explained as well. In the third chapter, while exploring the main issues treated by the Türk Birliği, its position on migration issues, education issues, Gagauz Turks, representation of Turks in the Romanian political scene and the Turkish-Tatar differanciation are exposed.