Maternal Diyet ile Anne Sütünün Total Antioksidan Kapasitesi ve Bioaktif Protein Bileşenleri Arasındaki İlişki
Tel Adıgüzel, Kübra
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Thirtytwo pregnant women, who admitted to Health Sciences University, Gülhane Education and Research Hospital, Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, participated in this study which aimed to determine the relationship between maternal diet and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and bioactive protein components of breast milk. A questionnaire was applied to evaluate the general characteristics of the participants, food consumption frequency, physical activities and general characteristics of infants and height and weight of mothers and height, weight and head circumference of infants were taken. TAC of the gestational and lactation period diet was calculated. Gestational period maternal blood, cord blood, lactation period maternal blood, colostrum and mature milk samples were taken and TAC and total oxidant status (TOS) values were analysed by EREL method and leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, lactoferrin and lysozyme levels were measured by ELISA method. Dietary TAC in gestation and lactation was 25.9 6.9 mmol/day and 27.5 6.4 mmol/day, respectively. TAC of maternal blood (gestational and lactation), cord blood, colostrum and 1st month mature milk was 1.2 0.3 mmol/L, 1.3 0.2 mmol/L, 1.1 0.4 mmol/L, 1.8 0.2 mmol/L, and 2.0 0.1 mmol/L respectively, whereas TOC was 9.5 2.5 mmol/L, 10.4 2.8 mmol/L, 17.3 14.1 mmol/L, 60.0 16.9 mmol/L, and 31.8 11.4 mmol/L. In the multiple regression analysis, positive correlation existed between maternal diet TAC and gestational serum (=0.711, p˂0.001) and colostrum TAC (=0.544, p˂0.001), independent of other parameters. In addition, positive correlation existed between lactation period maternal diet TAC and lactation serum (=0.410, p=0.013) and mature milk TAK (=0.438, p=0.012) in multiple regression analysis. A positive correlation was determined between the colostrum leptin and lactoferrin levels and the percentage of energy from gestational period maternal dietary protein (r = 0.377, r = 0.496, respectively). There was a positive correlation between the colostrum ghrelin level and the percentage of energy from gestational period maternal dietary protein and fat (r = 0.570, r = 0.366, respectively). Colostrum lysozyme level and the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid was negatively correlated (r = -0.357). There was positive correlation between mature milk lactoferrin level and protein, calcium and zinc amount of lactation period maternal diet (r = 0.365, r = 0.407, r = 0.459, respectively) and there was positive correlation between lysozyme level and animal-based protein amount (r = 0.432). There was negative correllation between mature milk ghrelin level and energy and sucrose amount of lactation period maternal diet (r = -0.373, r = -0.350, respectively). There was positive correllation between mature milk ghrelin level and energy from carbohydrate and fat of lactational period maternal diet (r = 0.412, r = 0.505, respectively). In the multiple regression analysis, positive correlation existed between lactation diet TAC and lactation period serum and mature milk leptin (=0.587; p ˂0.001 and =0.544; p ˂0.001, respectively), independent of other parameters. In conclusion, there is a relationship between maternal diet and TAC levels of mother's milk and leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, lactoferrin and lysozyme levels. Further research is needed to establish this relation.