Etken Maddesi Klorheksidin Glukonat ve Benzidamin Hidroklorür olan Likit Farmasötik Ürünün Yaşam Döngüsü Değerlendirmesi
Güneş, Çağrı Emre
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With the developing science and technology, the diversity of consumer products and the demand for these products are increasing. The amount of pollution that accumulates in the natural receiving environment is directly proportional to the amount of products consumed. Environmental impacts of pollutants such as pharmaceutical products waste are known to have a high toxic effect, specifically on the aquatic ecosystem, due to the production and use stages. While it is known that environmental impacts from pharmaceutical production are high, the knowledge on this subject is currently limited. An examination of environmental impacts resulting from the production of pharmaceutical products is important for reaching sustainable production and consumption targets and developing green production methods. Since the process data of pharmaceutical products and components used for production contain process specific information that has privacy issues due to intellectual and industrial rights, there is a lack of data on chemicals used for production and supply chains of these chemicals. Hence, there are few studies that takes a holistic approach and uses process data and actual amount of process chemicals and emissions due to the process. In this study, cradle-to-gate life cycle impacts of a liquid pharmaceutical product with active ingredients Chlorhexidine Gluconate and Benzydamine Hydrochloride, were investigated by using actual production data by cooperating with a pharmaceutical company in order to better understand potential environmental problems of the pharmaceutical industry. In the scope of this study, for life cycle assessment of the liquid pharmaceutical product using SimaPro LCA tool, “Life Cycle Inventory” for 27 new chemicals that were not available in the existing LCI databases were established by compiling chemical tree data for each chemical compound of the production process. As ecotoxicity is the major environmental problem for pharmaceutical products, two LCIA methods that comprehensively characterize ecotoxicity, ReCiPe 2016 and ILCD 2011 Midpoint + Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods were chosen as LCIA methods to assess environmental impacts. LCIA results indicate that the amount of ecotoxicity originating from the "Coconut Oil" based production of the Tween 20 component, which is being used as an emulgator, is greater than other chemicals. Investigation of "Palm Kernel Oil" production method as an alternative production method to coconut oil production, “Palm Kernel Oil” based Tween 20 compound production results in a %95 and %94 reduction in aquatic ecotoxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity potential, respectively. In the second stage of the study, to characterizate ecotoxicity caused by the emissions due to production, amount of emissions in the wastewater were determined and ecotoxicity characterization factors corresponding to these emissions were compiled from UseTox database. Results indicate that aquatic ecotoxicity potential of Chlorhexidine Gluconate is 1000 times greater than for other emissions. It is likely that Chlohexidine Guluconate a disinfecting agent has adverse effects on microbial community of the aqueous medium. Chlorine Dioxide, an alternative to Chlorhexidine Gluconate has much lower ecotoxicity potential than Chlorhexidine Gluconate.