Türkiye'de Yaşayan Vegan ve Vejetaryen Bireylere Özgü Besin Tüketim Sıklığı Anketi Geliştirilmesi
BALCI, Tuğçe Nur
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The purpose of this study to develop a food frequency questionnaire specific to vegan and vegetarians living in Turkey and to assess their nutritional status. Vegan and vegetarians aged between 19-64 years participated in this three-stage study. In the first stage 20 participants recorded a 7-day food record and food frequency questionnaire food list was formed with this data and an online questionnare was developed. In the second stage questionnaire link was shared via vegan/vegetarian society web pages and participants completed the online survey (n=285). In the third stage, participants who completed the second stage asked to complete the questionnaire for a second time minimum of 2 weeks after the second stage, only 22 participants returned. According to the results of the second stage, of the participants 46.3% were vegan and 34,7% were lacto-ovo-vegetarian. Animal rights and ethical concerns were the main reasons in choosing a vegan/vegetarian life style (83.9%). There was no similarity between energy and most of the nutrient intakes obtained with 3-day food record and developed food frequency questionnaire in the second stage. Correlations were only found between protein (%), mono-unsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol and carotenoid intakes (p<0,05). The average energy intake was found 1,712.37±713.93 kcal according to food records. Daily energy intake percentage was 47.5% from carbohydrate, 13.4% from protein, and 37.3% from fats. When the food records are evaulated; in females vitamin B12 and folate intakes were low in 73.1%, calcium intake was low in 84.6% and zinc intake was low in 92.3%; in males calcium and zinc intake was low in 75.0%. In the third stage the re-tested food frequency questionnaire results and second stage food frequency questionnarie results were correlated. Vegan and vegetarian individuals living in Turkey seems to be susceptible to nutrient deficiencies. Use of an online questionnaire and lack of face-to-face interview reduced the completion rate of the questionnaire. Development of the questionnaire in a larger sample is necessary for validity of energy and nutrient intake of vegan and vegetarians living in Turkey.